## 3-PS2 Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

 How to read the standards » Go back to search results Related Content »

3-PS2   Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

3-PS2-1. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence of the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on the motion of an object. [Clarification Statement: Examples could include an unbalanced force on one side of a ball can make it start moving; and, balanced forces pushing on a box from both sides will not produce any motion at all.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to one variable at a time: number, size, or direction of forces. Assessment does not include quantitative force size, only qualitative and relative. Assessment is limited to gravity being addressed as a force that pulls objects down.] Make observations and/or measurements of an object’s motion to provide evidence that a pattern can be used to predict future motion. [Clarification Statement: Examples of motion with a predictable pattern could include a child swinging in a swing, a ball rolling back and forth in a bowl, and two children on a see-saw.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include technical terms such as period and frequency.] Ask questions to determine cause and effect relationships of electric or magnetic interactions between two objects not in contact with each other. [Clarification Statement: Examples of an electric force could include the force on hair from an electrically charged balloon and the electrical forces between a charged rod and pieces of paper; examples of a magnetic force could include the force between two permanent magnets, the force between an electromagnet and steel paperclips, and the force exerted by one magnet versus the force exerted by two magnets. Examples of cause and effect relationships could include how the distance between objects affects strength of the force and how the orientation of magnets affects the direction of the magnetic force.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to forces produced by objects that can be manipulated by students, and electrical interactions are limited to static electricity.] Define a simple design problem that can be solved by applying scientific ideas about magnets.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of problems could include constructing a latch to keep a door shut and creating a device to keep two moving objects from touching each other.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

## Science and Engineering Practices

### Asking Questions and Defining Problems

Asking questions and defining problems in grades 3–5 builds on grades K–2 experiences and progresses to specifying qualitative relationships.

### Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to include investigations that control variables and provide evidence to support explanations or design solutions.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

### Science Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence

• Science findings are based on recognizing patterns. (3-PS2-2)

### Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods

• Science investigations use a variety of methods, tools, and techniques. (3-PS2-1)

## Disciplinary Core Ideas

### PS2.A: Forces and Motion

• Each force acts on one particular object and has both strength and a direction. An object at rest typically has multiple forces acting on it, but they add to give zero net force on the object. Forces that do not sum to zero can cause changes in the object’s speed or direction of motion. (Boundary: Qualitative and conceptual, but not quantitative addition of forces are used at this level.) (3-PS2-1)
• The patterns of an object’s motion in various situations can be observed and measured; when that past motion exhibits a regular pattern, future motion can be predicted from it. (Boundary: Technical terms, such as magnitude, velocity, momentum, and vector quantity, are not introduced at this level, but the concept that some quantities need both size and direction to be described is developed.) (3-PS2-2)

## Crosscutting Concepts

### Cause and Effect

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

### Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology

Connections to other DCIs in third grade: N/A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-levels:

K.PS2.A (3-PS2-1); K.PS2.B (3-PS2-1); K.PS3.C (3-PS2-1); K.ETS1.A (3-PS2-4); 1.ESS1.A (3-PS2-2); 4.PS4.A (3-PS2-2); 4.ETS1.A (3-PS2-4); 5.PS2.B (3-PS2-1); MS.PS2.A (3-PS2-1),(3-PS2-2); MS.PS2.B (3-PS2-3),(3-PS2-4); MS.ESS1.B (3-PS2-1),(3-PS2-2); MS.ESS2.C (3-PS2-1)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

 RI.3.1 ELA/Literacy - Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. (3-PS2-1),(3-PS2-3) Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect. (3-PS2-3) Describe the logical connection between particular sentences and paragraphs in a text (e.g., comparison, cause/effect, first/second/third in a sequence). (3-PS2-3) Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic. (3-PS2-1),(3-PS2-2) Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories. (3-PS2-1),(3-PS2-2) Ask and answer questions about information from a speaker, offering appropriate elaboration and detail. (3-PS2-3) Mathematics - Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (3-PS2-1) Use appropriate tools strategically. (3-PS2-1) Measure and estimate liquid volumes and masses of objects using standard units of grams (g), kilograms (kg), and liters (l). Add, subtract, multiply, or divide to solve one-step word problems involving masses or volumes that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as a beaker with a measurement scale) to represent the problem. (3-PS2-1)

3-PS2   Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

3-PS2-1. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence of the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on the motion of an object. [Clarification Statement: Examples could include an unbalanced force on one side of a ball can make it start moving; and, balanced forces pushing on a box from both sides will not produce any motion at all.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to one variable at a time: number, size, or direction of forces. Assessment does not include quantitative force size, only qualitative and relative. Assessment is limited to gravity being addressed as a force that pulls objects down.] Make observations and/or measurements of an object’s motion to provide evidence that a pattern can be used to predict future motion. [Clarification Statement: Examples of motion with a predictable pattern could include a child swinging in a swing, a ball rolling back and forth in a bowl, and two children on a see-saw.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include technical terms such as period and frequency.] Ask questions to determine cause and effect relationships of electric or magnetic interactions between two objects not in contact with each other. [Clarification Statement: Examples of an electric force could include the force on hair from an electrically charged balloon and the electrical forces between a charged rod and pieces of paper; examples of a magnetic force could include the force between two permanent magnets, the force between an electromagnet and steel paperclips, and the force exerted by one magnet versus the force exerted by two magnets. Examples of cause and effect relationships could include how the distance between objects affects strength of the force and how the orientation of magnets affects the direction of the magnetic force.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to forces produced by objects that can be manipulated by students, and electrical interactions are limited to static electricity.] Define a simple design problem that can be solved by applying scientific ideas about magnets.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of problems could include constructing a latch to keep a door shut and creating a device to keep two moving objects from touching each other.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

## Science and Engineering Practices

### Asking Questions and Defining Problems

Asking questions and defining problems in grades 3–5 builds on grades K–2 experiences and progresses to specifying qualitative relationships.

### Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to include investigations that control variables and provide evidence to support explanations or design solutions.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

### Science Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence

• Science findings are based on recognizing patterns. (3-PS2-2)

### Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods

• Science investigations use a variety of methods, tools, and techniques. (3-PS2-1)

## Disciplinary Core Ideas

### PS2.A: Forces and Motion

• Each force acts on one particular object and has both strength and a direction. An object at rest typically has multiple forces acting on it, but they add to give zero net force on the object. Forces that do not sum to zero can cause changes in the object’s speed or direction of motion. (Boundary: Qualitative and conceptual, but not quantitative addition of forces are used at this level.) (3-PS2-1)
• The patterns of an object’s motion in various situations can be observed and measured; when that past motion exhibits a regular pattern, future motion can be predicted from it. (Boundary: Technical terms, such as magnitude, velocity, momentum, and vector quantity, are not introduced at this level, but the concept that some quantities need both size and direction to be described is developed.) (3-PS2-2)

## Crosscutting Concepts

### Cause and Effect

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

### Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology

Connections to other DCIs in third grade: N/A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-levels:

K.PS2.A (3-PS2-1); K.PS2.B (3-PS2-1); K.PS3.C (3-PS2-1); K.ETS1.A (3-PS2-4); 1.ESS1.A (3-PS2-2); 4.PS4.A (3-PS2-2); 4.ETS1.A (3-PS2-4); 5.PS2.B (3-PS2-1); MS.PS2.A (3-PS2-1),(3-PS2-2); MS.PS2.B (3-PS2-3),(3-PS2-4); MS.ESS1.B (3-PS2-1),(3-PS2-2); MS.ESS2.C (3-PS2-1)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

 RI.3.1 ELA/Literacy - Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. (3-PS2-1),(3-PS2-3) Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect. (3-PS2-3) Describe the logical connection between particular sentences and paragraphs in a text (e.g., comparison, cause/effect, first/second/third in a sequence). (3-PS2-3) Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic. (3-PS2-1),(3-PS2-2) Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories. (3-PS2-1),(3-PS2-2) Ask and answer questions about information from a speaker, offering appropriate elaboration and detail. (3-PS2-3) Mathematics - Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (3-PS2-1) Use appropriate tools strategically. (3-PS2-1) Measure and estimate liquid volumes and masses of objects using standard units of grams (g), kilograms (kg), and liters (l). Add, subtract, multiply, or divide to solve one-step word problems involving masses or volumes that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as a beaker with a measurement scale) to represent the problem. (3-PS2-1)

3-PS2   Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

3-PS2-1. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence of the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on the motion of an object. [Clarification Statement: Examples could include an unbalanced force on one side of a ball can make it start moving; and, balanced forces pushing on a box from both sides will not produce any motion at all.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to one variable at a time: number, size, or direction of forces. Assessment does not include quantitative force size, only qualitative and relative. Assessment is limited to gravity being addressed as a force that pulls objects down.] Make observations and/or measurements of an object’s motion to provide evidence that a pattern can be used to predict future motion. [Clarification Statement: Examples of motion with a predictable pattern could include a child swinging in a swing, a ball rolling back and forth in a bowl, and two children on a see-saw.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include technical terms such as period and frequency.] Ask questions to determine cause and effect relationships of electric or magnetic interactions between two objects not in contact with each other. [Clarification Statement: Examples of an electric force could include the force on hair from an electrically charged balloon and the electrical forces between a charged rod and pieces of paper; examples of a magnetic force could include the force between two permanent magnets, the force between an electromagnet and steel paperclips, and the force exerted by one magnet versus the force exerted by two magnets. Examples of cause and effect relationships could include how the distance between objects affects strength of the force and how the orientation of magnets affects the direction of the magnetic force.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to forces produced by objects that can be manipulated by students, and electrical interactions are limited to static electricity.] Define a simple design problem that can be solved by applying scientific ideas about magnets.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of problems could include constructing a latch to keep a door shut and creating a device to keep two moving objects from touching each other.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

## Science and Engineering Practices

### Asking Questions and Defining Problems

Asking questions and defining problems in grades 3–5 builds on grades K–2 experiences and progresses to specifying qualitative relationships.

### Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to include investigations that control variables and provide evidence to support explanations or design solutions.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

### Science Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence

• Science findings are based on recognizing patterns. (3-PS2-2)

### Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods

• Science investigations use a variety of methods, tools, and techniques. (3-PS2-1)

## Disciplinary Core Ideas

### PS2.A: Forces and Motion

• Each force acts on one particular object and has both strength and a direction. An object at rest typically has multiple forces acting on it, but they add to give zero net force on the object. Forces that do not sum to zero can cause changes in the object’s speed or direction of motion. (Boundary: Qualitative and conceptual, but not quantitative addition of forces are used at this level.) (3-PS2-1)
• The patterns of an object’s motion in various situations can be observed and measured; when that past motion exhibits a regular pattern, future motion can be predicted from it. (Boundary: Technical terms, such as magnitude, velocity, momentum, and vector quantity, are not introduced at this level, but the concept that some quantities need both size and direction to be described is developed.) (3-PS2-2)

## Crosscutting Concepts

### Cause and Effect

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

### Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology

Connections to other DCIs in third grade: N/A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-levels:

K.PS2.A (3-PS2-1); K.PS2.B (3-PS2-1); K.PS3.C (3-PS2-1); K.ETS1.A (3-PS2-4); 1.ESS1.A (3-PS2-2); 4.PS4.A (3-PS2-2); 4.ETS1.A (3-PS2-4); 5.PS2.B (3-PS2-1); MS.PS2.A (3-PS2-1),(3-PS2-2); MS.PS2.B (3-PS2-3),(3-PS2-4); MS.ESS1.B (3-PS2-1),(3-PS2-2); MS.ESS2.C (3-PS2-1)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

 RI.3.1 ELA/Literacy - Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. (3-PS2-1),(3-PS2-3) Describe the relationship between a series of historical events, scientific ideas or concepts, or steps in technical procedures in a text, using language that pertains to time, sequence, and cause/effect. (3-PS2-3) Describe the logical connection between particular sentences and paragraphs in a text (e.g., comparison, cause/effect, first/second/third in a sequence). (3-PS2-3) Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic. (3-PS2-1),(3-PS2-2) Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources; take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories. (3-PS2-1),(3-PS2-2) Ask and answer questions about information from a speaker, offering appropriate elaboration and detail. (3-PS2-3) Mathematics - Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (3-PS2-1) Use appropriate tools strategically. (3-PS2-1) Measure and estimate liquid volumes and masses of objects using standard units of grams (g), kilograms (kg), and liters (l). Add, subtract, multiply, or divide to solve one-step word problems involving masses or volumes that are given in the same units, e.g., by using drawings (such as a beaker with a measurement scale) to represent the problem. (3-PS2-1)

* The performance expectations marked with an asterisk integrate traditional science content with engineering through a Practice or Disciplinary Core Idea.

The section entitled “Disciplinary Core Ideas” is reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Integrated and reprinted with permission from the National Academy of Sciences.

4