MS.History of Earth

MS.   The History of Earth

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-ESS1-4. Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence from rock strata for how the geologic time scale is used to organize Earth's 4.6-billion-year-old history. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how analyses of rock formations and the fossils they contain are used to establish relative ages of major events in Earth’s history. Examples of Earth’s major events could range from being very recent (such as the last Ice Age or the earliest fossils of homo sapiens) to very old (such as the formation of Earth or the earliest evidence of life). Examples can include the formation of mountain chains and ocean basins, the evolution or extinction of particular living organisms, or significant volcanic eruptions.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include recalling the names of specific periods or epochs and events within them.]
MS-ESS2-2. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how geoscience processes have changed Earth's surface at varying time and spatial scales. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how processes change Earth’s surface at time and spatial scales that can be large (such as slow plate motions or the uplift of large mountain ranges) or small (such as rapid landslides or microscopic geochemical reactions), and how many geoscience processes (such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and meteor impacts) usually behave gradually but are punctuated by catastrophic events. Examples of geoscience processes include surface weathering and deposition by the movements of water, ice, and wind. Emphasis is on geoscience processes that shape local geographic features, where appropriate.]
MS-ESS2-3. Analyze and interpret data on the distribution of fossils and rocks, continental shapes, and seafloor structures to provide evidence of the past plate motions. [Clarification Statement: Examples of data include similarities of rock and fossil types on different continents, the shapes of the continents (including continental shelves), and the locations of ocean structures (such as ridges, fracture zones, and trenches).]  [Assessment Boundary: Paleomagnetic anomalies in oceanic and continental crust are not assessed.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to extending quantitative analysis to investigations, distinguishing between correlation and causation, and basic statistical techniques of data and error analysis.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include constructing explanations and designing solutions supported by multiple sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge is Open to Revision in Light of New Evidence

  • Science findings are frequently revised and/or reinterpreted based on new evidence. (MS-ESS2-3)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

ESS1.C: The History of Planet Earth

ESS2.A: Earth’s Materials and Systems

ESS2.B: PLate Tectonics and Large-Scale System Interactions

ESS2.C: The Roles of Water in Earth's Surface Processes

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Scale Proportion and Quantity

Connections to other DCIs in this grade band:

MS.PS1.B (MS-ESS2-2); MS.LS2.B (MS-ESS2-2); MS.LS4.C (MS-ESS1-4)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

3.LS4.A (MS-ESS1-4),(MS-ESS2-3); 3.LS4.C (MS-ESS1-4); 3.ESS3.B (MS-ESS2-3); 4.ESS1.C (MS-ESS1-4),(MS-ESS2-2),(MS-ESS2-3); 4.ESS2.A (MS-ESS2-2); 4.ESS2.B (MS-ESS2-3); 4.ESS2.E (MS-ESS2-2); 4.ESS3.B (MS-ESS2-3); 5.ESS2.A (MS-ESS2-2); HS.PS1.C (MS-ESS1-4); HS.PS3.D (MS-ESS2-2); HS.LS2.B (MS-ESS2-2); HS.LS4.A (MS-ESS1-4),(MS-ESS2-3); HS.LS4.C (MS-ESS1-4),(MS-ESS2-3); HS.ESS1.C (MS-ESS1-4),(MS-ESS2-2),(MS-ESS2-3); HS.ESS2.A (MS-ESS1-4),(MS-ESS2-2),(MS-ESS2-3); HS.ESS2.B (MS-ESS2-2),(MS-ESS2-3); HS.ESS2.C (MS-ESS2-2); HS.ESS2.D (MS-ESS2-2); HS.ESS2.E (MS-ESS2-2); HS.ESS3.D (MS-ESS2-2)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.6-8.1Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. (MS-ESS1-4),(MS-ESS2-2),(MS-ESS2-3)
RST.6-8.7Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table). (MS-ESS2-3)
RST.6-8.9Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic. (MS-ESS2-3)
WHST.6-8.2Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content. (MS-ESS1-4),(MS-ESS2-2)
WHST.6-8.8Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources. (MS-ESS2-5)
SL.8.5Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest. (MS-ESS2-1),(MS-ESS2-2),(MS-ESS2-6)
Mathematics -
MP.2Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (MS-ESS2-2),(MS-ESS2-3),(MS-ESS2-5)
6.EE.B.6Use variables to represent numbers and write expressions when solving a real-world or mathematical problem; understand that a variable can represent an unknown number, or, depending on the purpose at hand, any number in a specified set. (MS-ESS1-4),(MS-ESS2-2),(MS-ESS2-3)
7.EE.B.4Use variables to represent quantities in a real-world or mathematical problem, and construct simple equations and inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the quantities. (MS-ESS1-4),(MS-ESS2-2),(MS-ESS2-3)

MS.   The History of Earth

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-ESS1-4. Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence from rock strata for how the geologic time scale is used to organize Earth's 4.6-billion-year-old history. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how analyses of rock formations and the fossils they contain are used to establish relative ages of major events in Earth’s history. Examples of Earth’s major events could range from being very recent (such as the last Ice Age or the earliest fossils of homo sapiens) to very old (such as the formation of Earth or the earliest evidence of life). Examples can include the formation of mountain chains and ocean basins, the evolution or extinction of particular living organisms, or significant volcanic eruptions.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include recalling the names of specific periods or epochs and events within them.]
MS-ESS2-2. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how geoscience processes have changed Earth's surface at varying time and spatial scales. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how processes change Earth’s surface at time and spatial scales that can be large (such as slow plate motions or the uplift of large mountain ranges) or small (such as rapid landslides or microscopic geochemical reactions), and how many geoscience processes (such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and meteor impacts) usually behave gradually but are punctuated by catastrophic events. Examples of geoscience processes include surface weathering and deposition by the movements of water, ice, and wind. Emphasis is on geoscience processes that shape local geographic features, where appropriate.]
MS-ESS2-3. Analyze and interpret data on the distribution of fossils and rocks, continental shapes, and seafloor structures to provide evidence of the past plate motions. [Clarification Statement: Examples of data include similarities of rock and fossil types on different continents, the shapes of the continents (including continental shelves), and the locations of ocean structures (such as ridges, fracture zones, and trenches).]  [Assessment Boundary: Paleomagnetic anomalies in oceanic and continental crust are not assessed.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to extending quantitative analysis to investigations, distinguishing between correlation and causation, and basic statistical techniques of data and error analysis.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include constructing explanations and designing solutions supported by multiple sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge is Open to Revision in Light of New Evidence

  • Science findings are frequently revised and/or reinterpreted based on new evidence. (MS-ESS2-3)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

ESS1.C: The History of Planet Earth

ESS2.A: Earth’s Materials and Systems

ESS2.B: PLate Tectonics and Large-Scale System Interactions

ESS2.C: The Roles of Water in Earth's Surface Processes

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Scale Proportion and Quantity

Connections to other DCIs in this grade band:

MS.PS1.B (MS-ESS2-2); MS.LS2.B (MS-ESS2-2); MS.LS4.C (MS-ESS1-4)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

3.LS4.A (MS-ESS1-4),(MS-ESS2-3); 3.LS4.C (MS-ESS1-4); 3.ESS3.B (MS-ESS2-3); 4.ESS1.C (MS-ESS1-4),(MS-ESS2-2),(MS-ESS2-3); 4.ESS2.A (MS-ESS2-2); 4.ESS2.B (MS-ESS2-3); 4.ESS2.E (MS-ESS2-2); 4.ESS3.B (MS-ESS2-3); 5.ESS2.A (MS-ESS2-2); HS.PS1.C (MS-ESS1-4); HS.PS3.D (MS-ESS2-2); HS.LS2.B (MS-ESS2-2); HS.LS4.A (MS-ESS1-4),(MS-ESS2-3); HS.LS4.C (MS-ESS1-4),(MS-ESS2-3); HS.ESS1.C (MS-ESS1-4),(MS-ESS2-2),(MS-ESS2-3); HS.ESS2.A (MS-ESS1-4),(MS-ESS2-2),(MS-ESS2-3); HS.ESS2.B (MS-ESS2-2),(MS-ESS2-3); HS.ESS2.C (MS-ESS2-2); HS.ESS2.D (MS-ESS2-2); HS.ESS2.E (MS-ESS2-2); HS.ESS3.D (MS-ESS2-2)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.6-8.1Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. (MS-ESS1-4),(MS-ESS2-2),(MS-ESS2-3)
RST.6-8.7Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table). (MS-ESS2-3)
RST.6-8.9Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic. (MS-ESS2-3)
WHST.6-8.2Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content. (MS-ESS1-4),(MS-ESS2-2)
WHST.6-8.8Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources. (MS-ESS2-5)
SL.8.5Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest.(MS-ESS2-1),(MS-ESS2-2),(MS-ESS2-6)
Mathematics -
MP.2Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (MS-ESS2-2),(MS-ESS2-3),(MS-ESS2-5)
6.EE.B.6Use variables to represent numbers and write expressions when solving a real-world or mathematical problem; understand that a variable can represent an unknown number, or, depending on the purpose at hand, any number in a specified set. (MS-ESS1-4),(MS-ESS2-2),(MS-ESS2-3)
7.EE.B.4Use variables to represent quantities in a real-world or mathematical problem, and construct simple equations and inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the quantities. (MS-ESS1-4),(MS-ESS2-2),(MS-ESS2-3)

MS.   The History of Earth

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-ESS1-4. Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence from rock strata for how the geologic time scale is used to organize Earth's 4.6-billion-year-old history. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how analyses of rock formations and the fossils they contain are used to establish relative ages of major events in Earth’s history. Examples of Earth’s major events could range from being very recent (such as the last Ice Age or the earliest fossils of homo sapiens) to very old (such as the formation of Earth or the earliest evidence of life). Examples can include the formation of mountain chains and ocean basins, the evolution or extinction of particular living organisms, or significant volcanic eruptions.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include recalling the names of specific periods or epochs and events within them.]
MS-ESS2-2. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how geoscience processes have changed Earth's surface at varying time and spatial scales. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how processes change Earth’s surface at time and spatial scales that can be large (such as slow plate motions or the uplift of large mountain ranges) or small (such as rapid landslides or microscopic geochemical reactions), and how many geoscience processes (such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and meteor impacts) usually behave gradually but are punctuated by catastrophic events. Examples of geoscience processes include surface weathering and deposition by the movements of water, ice, and wind. Emphasis is on geoscience processes that shape local geographic features, where appropriate.]
MS-ESS2-3. Analyze and interpret data on the distribution of fossils and rocks, continental shapes, and seafloor structures to provide evidence of the past plate motions. [Clarification Statement: Examples of data include similarities of rock and fossil types on different continents, the shapes of the continents (including continental shelves), and the locations of ocean structures (such as ridges, fracture zones, and trenches).]  [Assessment Boundary: Paleomagnetic anomalies in oceanic and continental crust are not assessed.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to extending quantitative analysis to investigations, distinguishing between correlation and causation, and basic statistical techniques of data and error analysis.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include constructing explanations and designing solutions supported by multiple sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge is Open to Revision in Light of New Evidence

  • Science findings are frequently revised and/or reinterpreted based on new evidence. (MS-ESS2-3)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

ESS1.C: The History of Planet Earth

ESS2.A: Earth’s Materials and Systems

ESS2.B: PLate Tectonics and Large-Scale System Interactions

ESS2.C: The Roles of Water in Earth's Surface Processes

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Scale Proportion and Quantity

Connections to other DCIs in this grade band:

MS.PS1.B (MS-ESS2-2); MS.LS2.B (MS-ESS2-2); MS.LS4.C (MS-ESS1-4)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

3.LS4.A (MS-ESS1-4),(MS-ESS2-3); 3.LS4.C (MS-ESS1-4); 3.ESS3.B (MS-ESS2-3); 4.ESS1.C (MS-ESS1-4),(MS-ESS2-2),(MS-ESS2-3); 4.ESS2.A (MS-ESS2-2); 4.ESS2.B (MS-ESS2-3); 4.ESS2.E (MS-ESS2-2); 4.ESS3.B (MS-ESS2-3); 5.ESS2.A (MS-ESS2-2); HS.PS1.C (MS-ESS1-4); HS.PS3.D (MS-ESS2-2); HS.LS2.B (MS-ESS2-2); HS.LS4.A (MS-ESS1-4),(MS-ESS2-3); HS.LS4.C (MS-ESS1-4),(MS-ESS2-3); HS.ESS1.C (MS-ESS1-4),(MS-ESS2-2),(MS-ESS2-3); HS.ESS2.A (MS-ESS1-4),(MS-ESS2-2),(MS-ESS2-3); HS.ESS2.B (MS-ESS2-2),(MS-ESS2-3); HS.ESS2.C (MS-ESS2-2); HS.ESS2.D (MS-ESS2-2); HS.ESS2.E (MS-ESS2-2); HS.ESS3.D (MS-ESS2-2)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.6-8.1Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. (MS-ESS1-4),(MS-ESS2-2),(MS-ESS2-3)
RST.6-8.7Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table). (MS-ESS2-3)
RST.6-8.9Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic. (MS-ESS2-3)
WHST.6-8.2Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content. (MS-ESS1-4),(MS-ESS2-2)
WHST.6-8.8Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources. (MS-ESS2-5)
SL.8.5Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest.(MS-ESS2-1),(MS-ESS2-2),(MS-ESS2-6)
Mathematics -
MP.2Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (MS-ESS2-2),(MS-ESS2-3),(MS-ESS2-5)
6.EE.B.6Use variables to represent numbers and write expressions when solving a real-world or mathematical problem; understand that a variable can represent an unknown number, or, depending on the purpose at hand, any number in a specified set. (MS-ESS1-4),(MS-ESS2-2),(MS-ESS2-3)
7.EE.B.4Use variables to represent quantities in a real-world or mathematical problem, and construct simple equations and inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the quantities. (MS-ESS1-4),(MS-ESS2-2),(MS-ESS2-3)

* The performance expectations marked with an asterisk integrate traditional science content with engineering through a Practice or Disciplinary Core Idea.

The section entitled “Disciplinary Core Ideas” is reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Integrated and reprinted with permission from the National Academy of Sciences.