MS-LS2 Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

MS-LS2   Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-LS2-1. Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on cause and effect relationships between resources and growth of individual organisms and the numbers of organisms in ecosystems during periods of abundant and scarce resources.]
MS-LS2-2. Construct an explanation that predicts patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on predicting consistent patterns of interactions in different ecosystems in terms of the relationships among and between organisms and abiotic components of ecosystems. Examples of types of interactions could include competitive, predatory, and mutually beneficial.]
MS-LS2-3. Develop a model to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy among living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on describing the conservation of matter and flow of energy into and out of various ecosystems, and on defining the boundaries of the system.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the use of chemical reactions to describe the processes.]
MS-LS2-4. Construct an argument supported by empirical evidence that changes to physical or biological components of an ecosystem affect populations. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on recognizing patterns in data and making warranted inferences about changes in populations, and on evaluating empirical evidence supporting arguments about changes to ecosystems.]
MS-LS2-5. Evaluate competing design solutions for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of ecosystem services could include water purification, nutrient recycling, and prevention of soil erosion. Examples of design solution constraints could include scientific, economic, and social considerations.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to developing, using, and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems.

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to extending quantitative analysis to investigations, distinguishing between correlation and causation, and basic statistical techniques of data and error analysis.

  • Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for phenomena. (MS-LS2-1)

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include constructing explanations and designing solutions supported by multiple sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to constructing a convincing argument that supports or refutes claims for either explanations or solutions about the natural and designed world(s).

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence

  • Science disciplines share common rules of obtaining and evaluating empirical evidence. (MS-LS2-4)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems

LS2.B: Cycle of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems

LS2.C: Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience

LS4.D: Biodiversity and Humans

  • Changes in biodiversity can influence humans’ resources, such as food, energy, and medicines, as well as ecosystem services that humans rely on—for example, water purification and recycling. (secondary to MS-LS2-5)

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

  • Patterns can be used to identify cause and effect relationships. (MS-LS2-2)

Cause and Effect

  • Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems. (MS-LS2-1)

Energy and Matter

  • The transfer of energy can be tracked as energy flows through a natural system. (MS-LS2-3)

Stability and Change

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

  Connections to Engineering, Technology, and                      Applications of Science

 

Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on Society and the Natural World

  • The use of technologies and any limitations on their use are driven by individual or societal needs, desires, and values; by the findings of scientific research; and by differences in such factors as climate, natural resources, and economic conditions. Thus technology use varies from region to region and over time. (MS-LS2-5)
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems

  • Science assumes that objects and events in natural systems occur in consistent patterns that are understandable through measurement and observation. (MS-LS2-3)

Science Addresses Questions About the Natural and Material World

  • Scientific knowledge can describe the consequences of actions but does not necessarily prescribe the decisions that society takes. (MS-LS2-5)

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

MS.PS1.B (MS-LS2-3); MS.LS1.B (MS-LS2-2); MS.LS4.C (MS-LS2-4); MS.LS4.D (MS-LS2-4); MS.ESS2.A (MS-LS2-3),(MS-LS2-4); MS.ESS3.A (MS-LS2-1),(MS-LS2-4); MS.ESS3.C (MS-LS2-1),(MS-LS2-4),(MS-LS2-5)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

1.LS1.B (MS-LS2-2); 3.LS2.C (MS-LS2-1),(MS-LS2-4); 3.LS4.D (MS-LS2-1),(MS-LS2-4); 5.LS2.A (MS-LS2-1),(MS-LS2-3); 5.LS2.B (MS-LS2-3); HS.PS3.B (MS-LS2-3); HS.LS1.C (MS-LS2-3); HS.LS2.A (MS-LS2-1),(MS-LS2-2),(MS-LS2-5); HS.LS2.B (MS-LS2-2),(MS-LS2-3); HS.LS2.C (MS-LS2-4),(MS-LS2-5); HS.LS2.D (MS-LS2-2); HS.LS4.C (MS-LS2-1),(MS-LS2-4); HS.LS4.D (MS-LS2-1),(MS-LS2-4),(MS-LS2-5); HS.ESS2.A (MS-LS2-3); HS.ESS2.E (MS-LS2-4); HS.ESS3.A (MS-LS2-1),(MS-LS2-5); HS.ESS3.B (MS-LS2-4); HS.ESS3.C (MS-LS2-4),(MS-LS2-5); HS.ESS3.D (MS-LS2-5)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. (MS-LS2-1),(MS-LS2-2),(MS-LS2-4)
RST.6-8.7 Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table). (MS-LS2-1)
RST.6-8.8 Distinguish among facts, reasoned judgment based on research findings, and speculation in a text. (MS-LS2-5)
RI.8.8 Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims. (MS-LS2-4),(MS-LS2-5)
WHST.6-8.1 Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. (MS-LS2-4)
WHST.6-8.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content. (MS-LS2-2)
WHST.6-8.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (MS-LS2-2),(MS-LS2-4)
SL.8.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. (MS-LS2-2)
SL.8.4 Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. (MS-LS2-2)
SL.8.5 Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest. (MS-LS2-3)
Mathematics -
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (MS-LS2-5)
6.RP.A.3 Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems. (MS-LS2-5)
6.EE.C.9Use variables to represent two quantities in a real-world problem that change in relationship to one another; write an equation to express one quantity, thought of as the dependent variable, in terms of the other quantity, thought of as the independent variable. Analyze the relationship between the dependent and independent variables using graphs and tables, and relate these to the equation. (MS-LS2-3)
6.SP.B.5Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context. (MS-LS2-2)

MS-LS2   Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-LS2-1. Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on cause and effect relationships between resources and growth of individual organisms and the numbers of organisms in ecosystems during periods of abundant and scarce resources.]
MS-LS2-2. Construct an explanation that predicts patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on predicting consistent patterns of interactions in different ecosystems in terms of the relationships among and between organisms and abiotic components of ecosystems. Examples of types of interactions could include competitive, predatory, and mutually beneficial.]
MS-LS2-3. Develop a model to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy among living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on describing the conservation of matter and flow of energy into and out of various ecosystems, and on defining the boundaries of the system.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the use of chemical reactions to describe the processes.]
MS-LS2-4. Construct an argument supported by empirical evidence that changes to physical or biological components of an ecosystem affect populations. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on recognizing patterns in data and making warranted inferences about changes in populations, and on evaluating empirical evidence supporting arguments about changes to ecosystems.]
MS-LS2-5. Evaluate competing design solutions for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of ecosystem services could include water purification, nutrient recycling, and prevention of soil erosion. Examples of design solution constraints could include scientific, economic, and social considerations.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to developing, using, and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems.

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to extending quantitative analysis to investigations, distinguishing between correlation and causation, and basic statistical techniques of data and error analysis.

  • Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for phenomena. (MS-LS2-1)

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Construct an explanation that includes qualitative or quantitative relationships between variables that predict phenomena. (MS-LS2-2)

Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to constructing a convincing argument that supports or refutes claims for either explanations or solutions about the natural and designed world(s).

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems

LS2.B: Cycle of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems

LS2.C: Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience

LS4.D: Biodiversity and Humans

  • Changes in biodiversity can influence humans’ resources, such as food, energy, and medicines, as well as ecosystem services that humans rely on—for example, water purification and recycling. (secondary to MS-LS2-5)

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

  • Patterns can be used to identify cause and effect relationships. (MS-LS2-2)

Cause and Effect

  • Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems. (MS-LS2-1)

Energy and Matter

  • The transfer of energy can be tracked as energy flows through a natural system. (MS-LS2-3)

Stability and Change

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

  Connections to Engineering, Technology, and                      Applications of Science

 

Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on Society and the Natural World

  • The use of technologies and any limitations on their use are driven by individual or societal needs, desires, and values; by the findings of scientific research; and by differences in such factors as climate, natural resources, and economic conditions. Thus technology use varies from region to region and over time. (MS-LS2-5)
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems

  • Science assumes that objects and events in natural systems occur in consistent patterns that are understandable through measurement and observation. (MS-LS2-3)

Science Addresses Questions About the Natural and Material World

  • Scientific knowledge can describe the consequences of actions but does not necessarily prescribe the decisions that society takes. (MS-LS2-5)

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

MS.PS1.B (MS-LS2-3); MS.LS1.B (MS-LS2-2); MS.LS4.C (MS-LS2-4); MS.LS4.D (MS-LS2-4); MS.ESS2.A (MS-LS2-3),(MS-LS2-4); MS.ESS3.A (MS-LS2-1),(MS-LS2-4); MS.ESS3.C (MS-LS2-1),(MS-LS2-4),(MS-LS2-5)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

1.LS1.B (MS-LS2-2); 3.LS2.C (MS-LS2-1),(MS-LS2-4); 3.LS4.D (MS-LS2-1),(MS-LS2-4); 5.LS2.A (MS-LS2-1),(MS-LS2-3); 5.LS2.B (MS-LS2-3); HS.PS3.B (MS-LS2-3); HS.LS1.C (MS-LS2-3); HS.LS2.A (MS-LS2-1),(MS-LS2-2),(MS-LS2-5); HS.LS2.B (MS-LS2-2),(MS-LS2-3); HS.LS2.C (MS-LS2-4),(MS-LS2-5); HS.LS2.D (MS-LS2-2); HS.LS4.C (MS-LS2-1),(MS-LS2-4); HS.LS4.D (MS-LS2-1),(MS-LS2-4),(MS-LS2-5); HS.ESS2.A (MS-LS2-3); HS.ESS2.E (MS-LS2-4); HS.ESS3.A (MS-LS2-1),(MS-LS2-5); HS.ESS3.B (MS-LS2-4); HS.ESS3.C (MS-LS2-4),(MS-LS2-5); HS.ESS3.C (MS-LS2-5)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. (MS-LS2-1),(MS-LS2-2),(MS-LS2-4)
RST.6-8.7 Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table). (MS-LS2-1)
RST.6-8.8 Distinguish among facts, reasoned judgment based on research findings, and speculation in a text. (MS-LS2-5)
RI.8.8 Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims. (MS-LS2-4),(MS-LS2-5)
WHST.6-8.1 Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. (MS-LS2-4)
WHST.6-8.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content. (MS-LS2-2)
WHST.6-8.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (MS-LS2-2),(MS-LS2-4)
SL.8.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. (MS-LS2-2)
SL.8.4 Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. (MS-LS2-2)
SL.8.5 Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest. (MS-LS2-3)
Mathematics -
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (MS-LS2-5)
6.RP.A.3 Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems. (MS-LS2-5)
6.EE.C.9Use variables to represent two quantities in a real-world problem that change in relationship to one another; write an equation to express one quantity, thought of as the dependent variable, in terms of the other quantity, thought of as the independent variable. Analyze the relationship between the dependent and independent variables using graphs and tables, and relate these to the equation. (MS-LS2-3)
6.SP.B.5Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context. (MS-LS2-2)

MS-LS2   Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-LS2-1. Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for the effects of resource availability on organisms and populations of organisms in an ecosystem. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on cause and effect relationships between resources and growth of individual organisms and the numbers of organisms in ecosystems during periods of abundant and scarce resources.]
MS-LS2-2. Construct an explanation that predicts patterns of interactions among organisms across multiple ecosystems. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on predicting consistent patterns of interactions in different ecosystems in terms of the relationships among and between organisms and abiotic components of ecosystems. Examples of types of interactions could include competitive, predatory, and mutually beneficial.]
MS-LS2-3. Develop a model to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy among living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on describing the conservation of matter and flow of energy into and out of various ecosystems, and on defining the boundaries of the system.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the use of chemical reactions to describe the processes.]
MS-LS2-4. Construct an argument supported by empirical evidence that changes to physical or biological components of an ecosystem affect populations. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on recognizing patterns in data and making warranted inferences about changes in populations, and on evaluating empirical evidence supporting arguments about changes to ecosystems.]
MS-LS2-5. Evaluate competing design solutions for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of ecosystem services could include water purification, nutrient recycling, and prevention of soil erosion. Examples of design solution constraints could include scientific, economic, and social considerations.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to developing, using, and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems.

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to extending quantitative analysis to investigations, distinguishing between correlation and causation, and basic statistical techniques of data and error analysis.

  • Analyze and interpret data to provide evidence for phenomena. (MS-LS2-1)

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Construct an explanation that includes qualitative or quantitative relationships between variables that predict phenomena. (MS-LS2-2)

Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to constructing a convincing argument that supports or refutes claims for either explanations or solutions about the natural and designed world(s).

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems

LS2.B: Cycle of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems

LS2.C: Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience

LS4.D: Biodiversity and Humans

  • Changes in biodiversity can influence humans’ resources, such as food, energy, and medicines, as well as ecosystem services that humans rely on—for example, water purification and recycling. (secondary to MS-LS2-5)

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

  • Patterns can be used to identify cause and effect relationships. (MS-LS2-2)

Cause and Effect

  • Cause and effect relationships may be used to predict phenomena in natural or designed systems. (MS-LS2-1)

Energy and Matter

  • The transfer of energy can be tracked as energy flows through a natural system. (MS-LS2-3)

Stability and Change

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

  Connections to Engineering, Technology, and                      Applications of Science

 

Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on Society and the Natural World

  • The use of technologies and any limitations on their use are driven by individual or societal needs, desires, and values; by the findings of scientific research; and by differences in such factors as climate, natural resources, and economic conditions. Thus technology use varies from region to region and over time. (MS-LS2-5)
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems

  • Science assumes that objects and events in natural systems occur in consistent patterns that are understandable through measurement and observation. (MS-LS2-3)

Science Addresses Questions About the Natural and Material World

  • Scientific knowledge can describe the consequences of actions but does not necessarily prescribe the decisions that society takes. (MS-LS2-5)

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

MS.PS1.B (MS-LS2-3); MS.LS1.B (MS-LS2-2); MS.LS4.C (MS-LS2-4); MS.LS4.D (MS-LS2-4); MS.ESS2.A (MS-LS2-3),(MS-LS2-4); MS.ESS3.A (MS-LS2-1),(MS-LS2-4); MS.ESS3.C (MS-LS2-1),(MS-LS2-4),(MS-LS2-5)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

1.LS1.B (MS-LS2-2); 3.LS2.C (MS-LS2-1),(MS-LS2-4); 3.LS4.D (MS-LS2-1),(MS-LS2-4); 5.LS2.A (MS-LS2-1),(MS-LS2-3); 5.LS2.B (MS-LS2-3); HS.PS3.B (MS-LS2-3); HS.LS1.C (MS-LS2-3); HS.LS2.A (MS-LS2-1),(MS-LS2-2),(MS-LS2-5); HS.LS2.B (MS-LS2-2),(MS-LS2-3); HS.LS2.C (MS-LS2-4),(MS-LS2-5); HS.LS2.D (MS-LS2-2); HS.LS4.C (MS-LS2-1),(MS-LS2-4); HS.LS4.D (MS-LS2-1),(MS-LS2-4),(MS-LS2-5); HS.ESS2.A (MS-LS2-3); HS.ESS2.E (MS-LS2-4); HS.ESS3.A (MS-LS2-1),(MS-LS2-5); HS.ESS3.B (MS-LS2-4); HS.ESS3.C (MS-LS2-4),(MS-LS2-5); HS.ESS3.C (MS-LS2-5)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. (MS-LS2-1),(MS-LS2-2),(MS-LS2-4)
RST.6-8.7 Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table). (MS-LS2-1)
RST.6-8.8 Distinguish among facts, reasoned judgment based on research findings, and speculation in a text. (MS-LS2-5)
RI.8.8 Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims. (MS-LS2-4),(MS-LS2-5)
WHST.6-8.1 Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. (MS-LS2-4)
WHST.6-8.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content. (MS-LS2-2)
WHST.6-8.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (MS-LS2-2),(MS-LS2-4)
SL.8.1 Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. (MS-LS2-2)
SL.8.4 Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. (MS-LS2-2)
SL.8.5 Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest. (MS-LS2-3)
Mathematics -
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (MS-LS2-5)
6.RP.A.3 Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems. (MS-LS2-5)
6.EE.C.9Use variables to represent two quantities in a real-world problem that change in relationship to one another; write an equation to express one quantity, thought of as the dependent variable, in terms of the other quantity, thought of as the independent variable. Analyze the relationship between the dependent and independent variables using graphs and tables, and relate these to the equation. (MS-LS2-3)
6.SP.B.5Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context. (MS-LS2-2)

* The performance expectations marked with an asterisk integrate traditional science content with engineering through a Practice or Disciplinary Core Idea.

The section entitled “Disciplinary Core Ideas” is reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Integrated and reprinted with permission from the National Academy of Sciences.