MS-PS1 Matter and its Interactions

MS-PS1   Matter and its Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-PS1-1. Develop models to describe the atomic composition of simple molecules and extended structures.  [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on developing models of molecules that vary in complexity. Examples of simple molecules could include ammonia and methanol. Examples of extended structures could include sodium chloride or diamonds. Examples of molecular-level models could include drawings, 3D ball and stick structures, or computer representations showing different molecules with different types of atoms.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include valence electrons and bonding energy, discussing the ionic nature of subunits of complex structures, or a complete description of all individual atoms in a complex molecule or extended structure is not required.]
MS-PS1-2. Analyze and interpret data on the properties of substances before and after the substances interact to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred.  [Clarification Statement: Examples of reactions could include burning sugar or steel wool, fat reacting with sodium hydroxide, and mixing zinc with hydrogen chloride.] [Assessment boundary: Assessment is limited to analysis of the following properties: density, melting point, boiling point, solubility, flammability, and odor.]
MS-PS1-3. Gather and make sense of information to describe that synthetic materials come from natural resources and impact society. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on natural resources that undergo a chemical process to form the synthetic material. Examples of new materials could include new medicine, foods, and alternative fuels.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to qualitative information.]
MS-PS1-4. Develop a model that predicts and describes changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed.  [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on qualitative molecular-level models of solids, liquids, and gases to show that adding or removing thermal energy increases or decreases kinetic energy of the particles until a change of state occurs. Examples of models could include drawing and diagrams. Examples of particles could include molecules or inert atoms. Examples of pure substances could include water, carbon dioxide, and helium.]
MS-PS1-5. Develop and use a model to describe how the total number of atoms does not change in a chemical reaction and thus mass is conserved. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on law of conservation of matter and on physical models or drawings, including digital forms, that represent atoms.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the use of atomic masses, balancing symbolic equations, or intermolecular forces.]
MS-PS1-6. Undertake a design project to construct, test, and modify a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical processes.* [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the design, controlling the transfer of energy to the environment, and modification of a device using factors such as type and concentration of a substance. Examples of designs could involve chemical reactions such as dissolving ammonium chloride or calcium chloride.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to the criteria of amount, time, and temperature of substance in testing the device.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to developing, using and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems.

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to extending quantitative analysis to investigations, distinguishing between correlation and causation, and basic statistical techniques of data and error analysis.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include constructing explanations and designing solutions supported by multiple sources of evidence consistent with scientific knowledge, principles, and theories.

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to evaluating the merit and validity of ideas and methods.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence

  • Science knowledge is based upon logical and conceptual connections between evidence and explanations. (MS-PS1-2)

Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

  • Laws are regularities or mathematical descriptions of natural phenomena. (MS-PS1-5)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter

PS1.B: Chemical Reactions

PS3.A: Definitions of Energy

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Cause and Effect

Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

Energy and Matter

Structure and Function

   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

        Connections to Engineering,Technology,

                     and Applications of Science

 

Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology

  • Engineering advances have led to important discoveries in virtually every field of science, and scientific discoveries have led to the development of entire industries and engineered systems. (MS-PS1-3)

Influence of Science, Engineering and Technology on Society and the Natural World

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

MS.PS3.D (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-6); MS.LS1.C (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5); MS.LS2.A (MS-PS1-3); MS.LS2.B (MS-PS1-5); MS.LS4.D (MS-PS1-3); MS.ESS2.A (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5); MS.ESS2.C (MS-PS1-1),(MS-PS1-4); MS.ESS3.A (MS-PS1-3); MS.ESS3.C (MS-PS1-3)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

5.PS1.A (MS-PS1-1); 5.PS1.B (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5); HS.PS1.A (MS-PS1-1),(MS-PS1-3),(MS-PS1-4),(MS-PS1-6); HS.PS1.B (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-4),(MS-PS1-5),(MS-PS1-6); HS.PS3.A (MS-PS1-4),(MS-PS1-6); HS.PS3.B (MS-PS1-6); HS.PS3.D (MS-PS1-6); HS.LS2.A (MS-PS1-3); HS.LS4.D (MS-PS1-3); HS.ESS1.A (MS-PS1-1); HS.ESS3.A (MS-PS1-3)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions.(MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-3)
RST.6-8.3 Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks. (MS-PS1-6)
RST.6-8.7Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table). (MS-PS1-1),(MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-4),(MS-PS1-5)
WHST.6-8.7 Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. (MS-PS1-6)
WHST.6-8.8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. (MS-PS1-3)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (MS-PS1-1),(MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (MS-PS1-1),(MS-PS1-5)
6.RP.A.3Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems. (MS-PS1-1),(MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5)
6.NS.C.5Understand that positive and negative numbers are used together to describe quantities having opposite directions or values (e.g., temperature above/below zero, elevation above/below sea level, credits/debits, positive/negative electric charge); use positive and negative numbers to represent quantities in real-world contexts, explaining the meaning of 0 in each situation. (MS-PS1-4)
8.EE.A.3Use numbers expressed in the form of a single digit times an integer power of 10 to estimate very large or very small quantities, and to express how many times as much one is than the other. (MS-PS1-1)
6.SP.B.4Display numerical data in plots on a number line, including dot plots, histograms, and box plots. (MS-PS1-2)
6.SP.B.5Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context. (MS-PS1-2)

MS-PS1   Matter and its Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-PS1-1. Develop models to describe the atomic composition of simple molecules and extended structures.  [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on developing models of molecules that vary in complexity. Examples of simple molecules could include ammonia and methanol. Examples of extended structures could include sodium chloride or diamonds. Examples of molecular-level models could include drawings, 3D ball and stick structures, or computer representations showing different molecules with different types of atoms.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include valence electrons and bonding energy, discussing the ionic nature of subunits of complex structures, or a complete description of all individual atoms in a complex molecule or extended structure is not required.]
MS-PS1-2. Analyze and interpret data on the properties of substances before and after the substances interact to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred.  [Clarification Statement: Examples of reactions could include burning sugar or steel wool, fat reacting with sodium hydroxide, and mixing zinc with hydrogen chloride.] [Assessment boundary: Assessment is limited to analysis of the following properties: density, melting point, boiling point, solubility, flammability, and odor.]
MS-PS1-3. Gather and make sense of information to describe that synthetic materials come from natural resources and impact society. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on natural resources that undergo a chemical process to form the synthetic material. Examples of new materials could include new medicine, foods, and alternative fuels.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to qualitative information.]
MS-PS1-4. Develop a model that predicts and describes changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed.  [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on qualitative molecular-level models of solids, liquids, and gases to show that adding or removing thermal energy increases or decreases kinetic energy of the particles until a change of state occurs. Examples of models could include drawing and diagrams. Examples of particles could include molecules or inert atoms. Examples of pure substances could include water, carbon dioxide, and helium.]
MS-PS1-5. Develop and use a model to describe how the total number of atoms does not change in a chemical reaction and thus mass is conserved. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on law of conservation of matter and on physical models or drawings, including digital forms, that represent atoms.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the use of atomic masses, balancing symbolic equations, or intermolecular forces.]
MS-PS1-6. Undertake a design project to construct, test, and modify a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical processes.* [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the design, controlling the transfer of energy to the environment, and modification of a device using factors such as type and concentration of a substance. Examples of designs could involve chemical reactions such as dissolving ammonium chloride or calcium chloride.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to the criteria of amount, time, and temperature of substance in testing the device.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to developing, using and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems.

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to extending quantitative analysis to investigations, distinguishing between correlation and causation, and basic statistical techniques of data and error analysis.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include constructing explanations and designing solutions supported by multiple sources of evidence consistent with scientific knowledge, principles, and theories.

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to evaluating the merit and validity of ideas and methods.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence

  • Science knowledge is based upon logical and conceptual connections between evidence and explanations. (MS-PS1-2)

Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

  • Laws are regularities or mathematical descriptions of natural phenomena. (MS-PS1-5)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter

PS1.B: Chemical Reactions

PS3.A: Definitions of Energy

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Cause and Effect

Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

Energy and Matter

Structure and Function

   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

        Connections to Engineering,Technology,

                     and Applications of Science

 

Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology

  • Engineering advances have led to important discoveries in virtually every field of science, and scientific discoveries have led to the development of entire industries and engineered systems. (MS-PS1-3)

Influence of Science, Engineering and Technology on Society and the Natural World

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

MS.PS3.D (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-6); MS.LS1.C (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5); MS.LS2.A (MS-PS1-3); MS.LS2.B (MS-PS1-5); MS.LS4.D (MS-PS1-3); MS.ESS2.A (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5); MS.ESS2.C (MS-PS1-1),(MS-PS1-4); MS.ESS3.A (MS-PS1-3); MS.ESS3.C (MS-PS1-3)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

5.PS1.A (MS-PS1-1); 5.PS1.B (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5); HS.PS1.A (MS-PS1-1),(MS-PS1-3),(MS-PS1-4),(MS-PS1-6); HS.PS1.B (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-4),(MS-PS1-5),(MS-PS1-6); HS.PS3.A (MS-PS1-4),(MS-PS1-6); HS.PS3.B (MS-PS1-6); HS.PS3.D (MS-PS1-6); HS.LS2.A (MS-PS1-3); HS.LS4.D (MS-PS1-3); HS.ESS1.A (MS-PS1-1); HS.ESS3.A (MS-PS1-3)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions.(MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-3)
RST.6-8.3 Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks. (MS-PS1-6)
RST.6-8.7Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table). (MS-PS1-1),(MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-4),(MS-PS1-5)
WHST.6-8.7 Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. (MS-PS1-6)
WHST.6-8.8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. (MS-PS1-3)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (MS-PS1-1),(MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (MS-PS1-1),(MS-PS1-5)
6.RP.A.3Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems. (MS-PS1-1),(MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5)
6.NS.C.5Understand that positive and negative numbers are used together to describe quantities having opposite directions or values (e.g., temperature above/below zero, elevation above/below sea level, credits/debits, positive/negative electric charge); use positive and negative numbers to represent quantities in real-world contexts, explaining the meaning of 0 in each situation. (MS-PS1-4)
8.EE.A.3Use numbers expressed in the form of a single digit times an integer power of 10 to estimate very large or very small quantities, and to express how many times as much one is than the other. (MS-PS1-1)
6.SP.B.4Display numerical data in plots on a number line, including dot plots, histograms, and box plots. (MS-PS1-2)
6.SP.B.5Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context. (MS-PS1-2)

MS-PS1   Matter and its Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-PS1-1. Develop models to describe the atomic composition of simple molecules and extended structures.  [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on developing models of molecules that vary in complexity. Examples of simple molecules could include ammonia and methanol. Examples of extended structures could include sodium chloride or diamonds. Examples of molecular-level models could include drawings, 3D ball and stick structures, or computer representations showing different molecules with different types of atoms.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include valence electrons and bonding energy, discussing the ionic nature of subunits of complex structures, or a complete description of all individual atoms in a complex molecule or extended structure is not required.]
MS-PS1-2. Analyze and interpret data on the properties of substances before and after the substances interact to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred.  [Clarification Statement: Examples of reactions could include burning sugar or steel wool, fat reacting with sodium hydroxide, and mixing zinc with hydrogen chloride.] [Assessment boundary: Assessment is limited to analysis of the following properties: density, melting point, boiling point, solubility, flammability, and odor.]
MS-PS1-3. Gather and make sense of information to describe that synthetic materials come from natural resources and impact society. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on natural resources that undergo a chemical process to form the synthetic material. Examples of new materials could include new medicine, foods, and alternative fuels.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to qualitative information.]
MS-PS1-4. Develop a model that predicts and describes changes in particle motion, temperature, and state of a pure substance when thermal energy is added or removed.  [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on qualitative molecular-level models of solids, liquids, and gases to show that adding or removing thermal energy increases or decreases kinetic energy of the particles until a change of state occurs. Examples of models could include drawing and diagrams. Examples of particles could include molecules or inert atoms. Examples of pure substances could include water, carbon dioxide, and helium.]
MS-PS1-5. Develop and use a model to describe how the total number of atoms does not change in a chemical reaction and thus mass is conserved. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on law of conservation of matter and on physical models or drawings, including digital forms, that represent atoms.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the use of atomic masses, balancing symbolic equations, or intermolecular forces.]
MS-PS1-6. Undertake a design project to construct, test, and modify a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical processes.* [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the design, controlling the transfer of energy to the environment, and modification of a device using factors such as type and concentration of a substance. Examples of designs could involve chemical reactions such as dissolving ammonium chloride or calcium chloride.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to the criteria of amount, time, and temperature of substance in testing the device.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to developing, using and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems.

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to extending quantitative analysis to investigations, distinguishing between correlation and causation, and basic statistical techniques of data and error analysis.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include constructing explanations and designing solutions supported by multiple sources of evidence consistent with scientific knowledge, principles, and theories.

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to evaluating the merit and validity of ideas and methods.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence

  • Science knowledge is based upon logical and conceptual connections between evidence and explanations. (MS-PS1-2)

Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

  • Laws are regularities or mathematical descriptions of natural phenomena. (MS-PS1-5)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter

PS1.B: Chemical Reactions

PS3.A: Definitions of Energy

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Cause and Effect

Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

Energy and Matter

Structure and Function

   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

        Connections to Engineering,Technology,

                     and Applications of Science

 

Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology

  • Engineering advances have led to important discoveries in virtually every field of science, and scientific discoveries have led to the development of entire industries and engineered systems. (MS-PS1-3)

Influence of Science, Engineering and Technology on Society and the Natural World

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

MS.PS3.D (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-6); MS.LS1.C (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5); MS.LS2.A (MS-PS1-3); MS.LS2.B (MS-PS1-5); MS.LS4.D (MS-PS1-3); MS.ESS2.A (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5); MS.ESS2.C (MS-PS1-1),(MS-PS1-4); MS.ESS3.A (MS-PS1-3); MS.ESS3.C (MS-PS1-3)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

5.PS1.A (MS-PS1-1); 5.PS1.B (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5); HS.PS1.A (MS-PS1-1),(MS-PS1-3),(MS-PS1-4),(MS-PS1-6); HS.PS1.B (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-4),(MS-PS1-5),(MS-PS1-6); HS.PS3.A (MS-PS1-4),(MS-PS1-6); HS.PS3.B (MS-PS1-6); HS.PS3.D (MS-PS1-6); HS.LS2.A (MS-PS1-3); HS.LS4.D (MS-PS1-3); HS.ESS1.A (MS-PS1-1); HS.ESS3.A (MS-PS1-3)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions.(MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-3)
RST.6-8.3 Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks. (MS-PS1-6)
RST.6-8.7Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table). (MS-PS1-1),(MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-4),(MS-PS1-5)
WHST.6-8.7 Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. (MS-PS1-6)
WHST.6-8.8 Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. (MS-PS1-3)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (MS-PS1-1),(MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (MS-PS1-1),(MS-PS1-5)
6.RP.A.3Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems. (MS-PS1-1),(MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5)
6.NS.C.5Understand that positive and negative numbers are used together to describe quantities having opposite directions or values (e.g., temperature above/below zero, elevation above/below sea level, credits/debits, positive/negative electric charge); use positive and negative numbers to represent quantities in real-world contexts, explaining the meaning of 0 in each situation. (MS-PS1-4)
8.EE.A.3Use numbers expressed in the form of a single digit times an integer power of 10 to estimate very large or very small quantities, and to express how many times as much one is than the other. (MS-PS1-1)
6.SP.B.4Display numerical data in plots on a number line, including dot plots, histograms, and box plots. (MS-PS1-2)
6.SP.B.5Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context. (MS-PS1-2)

* The performance expectations marked with an asterisk integrate traditional science content with engineering through a Practice or Disciplinary Core Idea.

The section entitled “Disciplinary Core Ideas” is reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Integrated and reprinted with permission from the National Academy of Sciences.