MS-PS4 Waves and their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer

MS-PS4   Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-PS4-1. Use mathematical representations to describe a simple model for waves that includes how the amplitude of a wave is related to the energy in a wave. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on describing waves with both qualitative and quantitative thinking.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include electromagnetic waves and is limited to standard repeating waves.]
MS-PS4-2. Develop and use a model to describe that waves are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both light and mechanical waves. Examples of models could include drawings, simulations, and written descriptions.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to qualitative applications pertaining to light and mechanical waves.]
MS-PS4-3. Integrate qualitative scientific and technical information to support the claim that digitized signals are a more reliable way to encode and transmit information than analog signals. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on a basic understanding that waves can be used for communication purposes. Examples could include using fiber optic cable to transmit light pulses, radio wave pulses in wifi devices, and conversion of stored binary patterns to make sound or text on a computer screen.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include binary counting. Assessment does not include the specific mechanism of any given device.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to developing, using, and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems.

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking at the 6–8 level builds on K–5 and progresses to identifying patterns in large data sets and using mathematical concepts to support explanations and arguments.

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 6-8 builds on K-5 and progresses to evaluating the merit and validity of ideas and methods.

  • Integrate qualitative scientific and technical information in written text with that contained in media and visual displays to clarify claims and findings. (MS-PS4-3)
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence

  • Science knowledge is based upon logical and conceptual connections between evidence and explanations. (MS-PS4-1)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS4.A: Wave Properties

PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation

PS4.C: Information Technologies and Instrumentation

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

  • Graphs and charts can be used to identify patterns in data. (MS-PS4-1)

Structure and Function

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

Connections to Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science

 

Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on Society and the Natural World

  • Technologies extend the measurement, exploration, modeling, and computational capacity of scientific investigations. (MS-PS4-3)

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science is a Human Endeavor

  • Advances in technology influence the progress of science and science has influenced advances in technology. (MS-PS4-3)

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

MS.LS1.D (MS-PS4-2)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

4.PS3.A (MS-PS4-1); 4.PS3.B (MS-PS4-1); 4.PS4.A (MS-PS4-1); 4.PS4.B (MS-PS4-2); 4.PS4.C (MS-PS4-3); HS.PS4.A (MS-PS4-1),(MS-PS4-2),(MS-PS4-3); HS.PS4.B (MS-PS4-1),(MS-PS4-2); HS.PS4.C (MS-PS4-3); HS.ESS1.A (MS-PS4-2); HS.ESS2.A (MS-PS4-2); HS.ESS2.C (MS-PS4-2); HS.ESS2.D (MS-PS4-2)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. (MS-PS4-3)
RST.6-8.2 Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; provide an accurate summary of the text distinct from prior knowledge or opinions. (MS-PS4-3)
RST.6-8.9 Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic. (MS-PS4-3)
WHST.6-8.9 Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (MS-PS4-3)
SL.8.5 Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest. (MS-PS4-1),(MS-PS4-2)
Mathematics -
MP.2Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (MS-PS4-1)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (MS-PS4-1)
6.RP.A.1Understand the concept of a ratio and use ratio language to describe a ratio relationship between two quantities. (MS-PS4-1)
6.RP.A.3Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems. (MS-PS4-1)
7.RP.A.2Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities. (MS-PS4-1)
8.F.A.3Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear. (MS-PS4-1)

MS-PS4   Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-PS4-1. Use mathematical representations to describe a simple model for waves that includes how the amplitude of a wave is related to the energy in a wave. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on describing waves with both qualitative and quantitative thinking.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include electromagnetic waves and is limited to standard repeating waves.]
MS-PS4-2. Develop and use a model to describe that waves are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both light and mechanical waves. Examples of models could include drawings, simulations, and written descriptions.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to qualitative applications pertaining to light and mechanical waves.]
MS-PS4-3. Integrate qualitative scientific and technical information to support the claim that digitized signals are a more reliable way to encode and transmit information than analog signals. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on a basic understanding that waves can be used for communication purposes. Examples could include using fiber optic cable to transmit light pulses, radio wave pulses in wifi devices, and conversion of stored binary patterns to make sound or text on a computer screen.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include binary counting. Assessment does not include the specific mechanism of any given device.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to developing, using, and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems.

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking at the 6–8 level builds on K–5 and progresses to identifying patterns in large data sets and using mathematical concepts to support explanations and arguments.

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 6-8 builds on K-5 and progresses to evaluating the merit and validity of ideas and methods.

  • Integrate qualitative scientific and technical information in written text with that contained in media and visual displays to clarify claims and findings. (MS-PS4-3)
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence

  • Science knowledge is based upon logical and conceptual connections between evidence and explanations. (MS-PS4-1)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS4.A: Wave Properties

PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation

PS4.C: Information Technologies and Instrumentation

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

  • Graphs and charts can be used to identify patterns in data. (MS-PS4-1)

Structure and Function

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

Connections to Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science

 

Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on Society and the Natural World

  • Technologies extend the measurement, exploration, modeling, and computational capacity of scientific investigations. (MS-PS4-3)

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science is a Human Endeavor

  • Advances in technology influence the progress of science and science has influenced advances in technology. (MS-PS4-3)

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

MS.LS1.D (MS-PS4-2)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

4.PS3.A (MS-PS4-1); 4.PS3.B (MS-PS4-1); 4.PS4.A (MS-PS4-1); 4.PS4.B (MS-PS4-2); 4.PS4.C (MS-PS4-3); HS.PS4.A (MS-PS4-1),(MS-PS4-2),(MS-PS4-3); HS.PS4.B (MS-PS4-1),(MS-PS4-2); HS.PS4.C (MS-PS4-3); HS.ESS1.A (MS-PS4-2); HS.ESS2.A (MS-PS4-2); HS.ESS2.C (MS-PS4-2); HS.ESS2.D (MS-PS4-2)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. (MS-PS4-3)
RST.6-8.2 Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; provide an accurate summary of the text distinct from prior knowledge or opinions. (MS-PS4-3)
RST.6-8.9 Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic. (MS-PS4-3)
WHST.6-8.9 Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (MS-PS4-3)
SL.8.5 Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest. (MS-PS4-1),(MS-PS4-2)
Mathematics -
MP.2Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (MS-PS4-1)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (MS-PS4-1)
6.RP.A.1Understand the concept of a ratio and use ratio language to describe a ratio relationship between two quantities. (MS-PS4-1)
6.RP.A.3Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems. (MS-PS4-1)
7.RP.A.2Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities. (MS-PS4-1)
8.F.A.3Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear. (MS-PS4-1)

MS-PS4   Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-PS4-1. Use mathematical representations to describe a simple model for waves that includes how the amplitude of a wave is related to the energy in a wave. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on describing waves with both qualitative and quantitative thinking.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include electromagnetic waves and is limited to standard repeating waves.]
MS-PS4-2. Develop and use a model to describe that waves are reflected, absorbed, or transmitted through various materials. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both light and mechanical waves. Examples of models could include drawings, simulations, and written descriptions.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to qualitative applications pertaining to light and mechanical waves.]
MS-PS4-3. Integrate qualitative scientific and technical information to support the claim that digitized signals are a more reliable way to encode and transmit information than analog signals. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on a basic understanding that waves can be used for communication purposes. Examples could include using fiber optic cable to transmit light pulses, radio wave pulses in wifi devices, and conversion of stored binary patterns to make sound or text on a computer screen.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include binary counting. Assessment does not include the specific mechanism of any given device.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to developing, using, and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems.

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking at the 6–8 level builds on K–5 and progresses to identifying patterns in large data sets and using mathematical concepts to support explanations and arguments.

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 6-8 builds on K-5 and progresses to evaluating the merit and validity of ideas and methods.

  • Integrate qualitative scientific and technical information in written text with that contained in media and visual displays to clarify claims and findings. (MS-PS4-3)
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence

  • Science knowledge is based upon logical and conceptual connections between evidence and explanations. (MS-PS4-1)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS4.A: Wave Properties

PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation

PS4.C: Information Technologies and Instrumentation

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

  • Graphs and charts can be used to identify patterns in data. (MS-PS4-1)

Structure and Function

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

Connections to Engineering, Technology, and Applications of Science

 

Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on Society and the Natural World

  • Technologies extend the measurement, exploration, modeling, and computational capacity of scientific investigations. (MS-PS4-3)

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science is a Human Endeavor

  • Advances in technology influence the progress of science and science has influenced advances in technology. (MS-PS4-3)

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

MS.LS1.D (MS-PS4-2)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

4.PS3.A (MS-PS4-1); 4.PS3.B (MS-PS4-1); 4.PS4.A (MS-PS4-1); 4.PS4.B (MS-PS4-2); 4.PS4.C (MS-PS4-3); HS.PS4.A (MS-PS4-1),(MS-PS4-2),(MS-PS4-3); HS.PS4.B (MS-PS4-1),(MS-PS4-2); HS.PS4.C (MS-PS4-3); HS.ESS1.A (MS-PS4-2); HS.ESS2.A (MS-PS4-2); HS.ESS2.C (MS-PS4-2); HS.ESS2.D (MS-PS4-2)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. (MS-PS4-3)
RST.6-8.2 Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; provide an accurate summary of the text distinct from prior knowledge or opinions. (MS-PS4-3)
RST.6-8.9 Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic. (MS-PS4-3)
WHST.6-8.9 Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (MS-PS4-3)
SL.8.5 Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest. (MS-PS4-1),(MS-PS4-2)
Mathematics -
MP.2Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (MS-PS4-1)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (MS-PS4-1)
6.RP.A.1Understand the concept of a ratio and use ratio language to describe a ratio relationship between two quantities. (MS-PS4-1)
6.RP.A.3Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems. (MS-PS4-1)
7.RP.A.2Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities. (MS-PS4-1)
8.F.A.3Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear. (MS-PS4-1)

* The performance expectations marked with an asterisk integrate traditional science content with engineering through a Practice or Disciplinary Core Idea.

The section entitled “Disciplinary Core Ideas” is reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Integrated and reprinted with permission from the National Academy of Sciences.