HS-PS2-4 Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

HS-PS2-4   Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-PS2-4. Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both quantitative and conceptual descriptions of gravitational and electric fields.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to systems with two objects.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking at the 9–12 level builds on K–8 and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

  • Theories and laws provide explanations in science.
  • Laws are statements or descriptions of the relationships among observable phenomena.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS2.B: Types of Interactions

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-level:

HS.PS3.A ; HS.ESS1.A ; HS.ESS1.B ; HS.ESS1.C ; HS.ESS2.C HS.ESS3.A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS2.B ; MS.ESS1.B

Common Core State Standards Connections:

Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-PS2-4)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-PS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-PS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-PS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-PS2-4)
HSA.SSE.A.1 Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. (HS-PS2-4)
HSA.SSE.B.3 Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression. (HS-PS2-4)

HS-PS2-4   Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-PS2-4. Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both quantitative and conceptual descriptions of gravitational and electric fields.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to systems with two objects.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking at the 9–12 level builds on K–8 and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

  • Theories and laws provide explanations in science.
  • Laws are statements or descriptions of the relationships among observable phenomena.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS2.B: Types of Interactions

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-level:

HS.PS3.A ; HS.ESS1.A ; HS.ESS1.B ; HS.ESS1.C ; HS.ESS2.C HS.ESS3.A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS2.B ; MS.ESS1.B

Common Core State Standards Connections:

Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-PS2-4)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-PS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-PS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-PS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-PS2-4)
HSA.SSE.A.1 Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. (HS-PS2-4)
HSA.SSE.B.3 Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression. (HS-PS2-4)

HS-PS2-4   Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-PS2-4. Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both quantitative and conceptual descriptions of gravitational and electric fields.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to systems with two objects.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking at the 9–12 level builds on K–8 and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

  • Theories and laws provide explanations in science.
  • Laws are statements or descriptions of the relationships among observable phenomena.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS2.B: Types of Interactions

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-level:

HS.PS3.A ; HS.ESS1.AHS.ESS1.B ; HS.ESS1.C ; HS.ESS2.C ; HS.ESS3.A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS2.B ; MS.ESS1.B

Common Core State Standards Connections:

Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-PS2-4)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-PS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-PS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-PS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-PS2-4)
HSA.SSE.A.1 Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. (HS-PS2-4)
HSA.SSE.B.3 Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression. (HS-PS2-4)

* The performance expectations marked with an asterisk integrate traditional science content with engineering through a Practice or Disciplinary Core Idea.

The section entitled “Disciplinary Core Ideas” is reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Integrated and reprinted with permission from the National Academy of Sciences.