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Grade Band/Level
Disciplinary Core Ideas

HS-LS1 From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

HS-LS1-1    From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS1-1. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the structure of proteins which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized cells. [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include identification of specific cell or tissue types, whole body systems, specific protein structures and functions, or the biochemistry of protein synthesis.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.A: Structure and Function

Crosscutting Concepts

Structure and Function

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.LS3.A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS1.A ; MS.LS3.A ; MS.LS3.B

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS1-1)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS1-1)
WHST.9-12.9Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-LS1-1)

HS-LS1-1    From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS1-1. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the structure of proteins which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized cells. [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include identification of specific cell or tissue types, whole body systems, specific protein structures and functions, or the biochemistry of protein synthesis.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.A: Structure and Function

Crosscutting Concepts

Structure and Function

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.LS3.A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS1.A ; MS.LS3.A ; MS.LS3.B

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS1-1)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS1-1)
WHST.9-12.9Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-LS1-1)

HS-LS1-1    From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS1-1. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the structure of DNA determines the structure of proteins which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized cells. [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include identification of specific cell or tissue types, whole body systems, specific protein structures and functions, or the biochemistry of protein synthesis.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.A: Structure and Function

Crosscutting Concepts

Structure and Function

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.LS3.A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS1.A ; MS.LS3.A ; MS.LS3.B

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS1-1)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS1-1)
WHST.9-12.9Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-LS1-1)

HS-LS1-2 From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

HS-LS1-2    From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS1-2. Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on functions at the organism system level such as nutrient uptake, water delivery, and organism movement in response to neural stimuli. An example of an interacting system could be an artery depending on the proper function of elastic tissue and smooth muscle to regulate and deliver the proper amount of blood within the circulatory system.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include interactions and functions at the molecular or chemical reaction level.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.A: Structure and Function

Crosscutting Concepts

Systems and System Models

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band: N/A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS1.A

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
SL.11-12.5Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-LS1-2)

HS-LS1-2    From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS1-2. Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on functions at the organism system level such as nutrient uptake, water delivery, and organism movement in response to neural stimuli. An example of an interacting system could be an artery depending on the proper function of elastic tissue and smooth muscle to regulate and deliver the proper amount of blood within the circulatory system.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include interactions and functions at the molecular or chemical reaction level.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.A: Structure and Function

Crosscutting Concepts

Systems and System Models

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band: N/A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS1.A

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
SL.11-12.5Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-LS1-2)

HS-LS1-2    From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS1-2. Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on functions at the organism system level such as nutrient uptake, water delivery, and organism movement in response to neural stimuli. An example of an interacting system could be an artery depending on the proper function of elastic tissue and smooth muscle to regulate and deliver the proper amount of blood within the circulatory system.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include interactions and functions at the molecular or chemical reaction level.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.A: Structure and Function

Crosscutting Concepts

Systems and System Models

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band: N/A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS1.A

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
SL.11-12.5Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-LS1-2)

HS-LS1-3 From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

HS-LS1-3    From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS1-3. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis. [Clarification Statement: Examples of investigations could include heart rate response to exercise, stomate response to moisture and temperature, and root development in response to water levels.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the cellular processes involved in the feedback mechanism.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical, and empirical models.

  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods

  • Scientific inquiry is characterized by a common set of values that include: logical thinking, precision, open-mindedness, objectivity, skepticism, replicability of results, and honest and ethical reporting of findings.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.A: Structure and Function

Crosscutting Concepts

Stability and Change

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band: N/A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS1.A

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
WHST.9-12.7Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HS-LS1-3)
WHST.11-12.8Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. (HS-LS1-3)

HS-LS1-3    From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS1-3. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis. [Clarification Statement: Examples of investigations could include heart rate response to exercise, stomate response to moisture and temperature, and root development in response to water levels.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the cellular processes involved in the feedback mechanism.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical, and empirical models.

  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods

  • Scientific inquiry is characterized by a common set of values that include: logical thinking, precision, open-mindedness, objectivity, skepticism, replicability of results, and honest and ethical reporting of findings.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.A: Structure and Function

Crosscutting Concepts

Stability and Change

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band: N/A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS1.A

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
WHST.9-12.7Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HS-LS1-3)
WHST.11-12.8Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. (HS-LS1-3)

HS-LS1-3    From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS1-3. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis. [Clarification Statement: Examples of investigations could include heart rate response to exercise, stomate response to moisture and temperature, and root development in response to water levels.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the cellular processes involved in the feedback mechanism.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical, and empirical models.

  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods

  • Scientific inquiry is characterized by a common set of values that include: logical thinking, precision, open-mindedness, objectivity, skepticism, replicability of results, and honest and ethical reporting of findings.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.A: Structure and Function

Crosscutting Concepts

Stability and Change

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band: N/A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS1.A

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
WHST.9-12.7Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HS-LS1-3)
WHST.11-12.8Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. (HS-LS1-3)

HS-LS1-4 From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

HS-LS1-4    From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS1-4. Use a model to illustrate the role of cellular division (mitosis) and differentiation in producing and maintaining complex organisms. [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include specific gene control mechanisms or rote memorization of the steps of mitosis.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.B: Growth and Development of Organisms

Crosscutting Concepts

Systems and System Models

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band: N/A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS1.A ; MS.LS1.B ; MS.LS3.A

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
SL.11-12.5Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-LS1-4)
Mathematics -
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-LS1-4)
HSF-IF.C.7Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases. (HS-LS1-4)
HSF-BF.A.1Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities. (HS-LS1-4)

HS-LS1-4    From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS1-4. Use a model to illustrate the role of cellular division (mitosis) and differentiation in producing and maintaining complex organisms. [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include specific gene control mechanisms or rote memorization of the steps of mitosis.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.B: Growth and Development of Organisms

Crosscutting Concepts

Systems and System Models

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band: N/A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS1.A ; MS.LS1.B ; MS.LS3.A

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
SL.11-12.5Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-LS1-4)
Mathematics -
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-LS1-4)
HSF-IF.C.7Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases. (HS-LS1-4)
HSF-BF.A.1Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities. (HS-LS1-4)

HS-LS1-4    From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS1-4. Use a model to illustrate the role of cellular division (mitosis) and differentiation in producing and maintaining complex organisms. [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include specific gene control mechanisms or rote memorization of the steps of mitosis.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.B: Growth and Development of Organisms

Crosscutting Concepts

Systems and System Models

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band: N/A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS1.A ; MS.LS1.B ; MS.LS3.A

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
SL.11-12.5Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-LS1-4)
Mathematics -
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-LS1-4)
HSF-IF.C.7Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases. (HS-LS1-4)
HSF-BF.A.1Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities. (HS-LS1-4)

HS-LS1-5 From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

HS-LS1-5    From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS1-5. Use a model to illustrate how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored chemical energy. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on illustrating inputs and outputs of matter and the transfer and transformation of energy in photosynthesis by plants and other photosynthesizing organisms. Examples of models could include diagrams, chemical equations, and conceptual models.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include specific biochemical steps.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.C: Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms

Crosscutting Concepts

Energy and Matter

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS1.B ; HS.PS3.B

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS1.B ; MS.PS3.D ; MS.LS1.C ; MS.LS2.B

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
SL.11-12.5Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-LS1-5)

HS-LS1-5    From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS1-5. Use a model to illustrate how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored chemical energy. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on illustrating inputs and outputs of matter and the transfer and transformation of energy in photosynthesis by plants and other photosynthesizing organisms. Examples of models could include diagrams, chemical equations, and conceptual models.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include specific biochemical steps.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.C: Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms

Crosscutting Concepts

Energy and Matter

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS1.B ; HS.PS3.B

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS1.B ; MS.PS3.D ; MS.LS1.C ; MS.LS2.B

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
SL.11-12.5Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-LS1-5)

HS-LS1-5    From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS1-5. Use a model to illustrate how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored chemical energy. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on illustrating inputs and outputs of matter and the transfer and transformation of energy in photosynthesis by plants and other photosynthesizing organisms. Examples of models could include diagrams, chemical equations, and conceptual models.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include specific biochemical steps.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.C: Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms

Crosscutting Concepts

Energy and Matter

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS1.B ; HS.PS3.B

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS1.B ; MS.PS3.D ; MS.LS1.C ; MS.LS2.B

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
SL.11-12.5Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-LS1-5)

HS-LS1-6 From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

HS-LS1-6    From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS1-6. Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for how carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen from sugar molecules may combine with other elements to form amino acids and/or other large carbon-based molecules. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using evidence from models and simulations to support explanations.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the details of the specific chemical reactions or identification of macromolecules.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.C: Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms

Crosscutting Concepts

Energy and Matter

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS1.B

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS1.A ; MS.PS1.B ; MS.PS3.D ; MS.LS1.C ; MS.ESS2.E

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS1-6)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS1-6)
WHST.9-12.5Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (HS-LS1-6)
WHST.9-12.9Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-LS1-6)

HS-LS1-6    From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS1-6. Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for how carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen from sugar molecules may combine with other elements to form amino acids and/or other large carbon-based molecules. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using evidence from models and simulations to support explanations.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the details of the specific chemical reactions or identification of macromolecules.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.C: Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms

Crosscutting Concepts

Energy and Matter

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS1.B

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS1.A ; MS.PS1.B ; MS.PS3.D ; MS.LS1.C ; MS.ESS2.E

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS1-6)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS1-6)
WHST.9-12.5Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (HS-LS1-6)
WHST.9-12.9Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-LS1-6)

HS-LS1-6    From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS1-6. Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for how carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen from sugar molecules may combine with other elements to form amino acids and/or other large carbon-based molecules. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using evidence from models and simulations to support explanations.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the details of the specific chemical reactions or identification of macromolecules.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.C: Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms

Crosscutting Concepts

Energy and Matter

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS1.B

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS1.A ; MS.PS1.B ; MS.PS3.D ; MS.LS1.C ; MS.ESS2.E

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS1-6)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS1-6)
WHST.9-12.5Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (HS-LS1-6)
WHST.9-12.9Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-LS1-6)

HS-LS1-7 From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

HS-LS1-7    From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS1-7. Use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new compounds are formed resulting in a net transfer of energy. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the conceptual understanding of the inputs and outputs of the process of cellular respiration.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment should not include identification of the steps or specific processes involved in cellular respiration.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.C: Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms

Crosscutting Concepts

Energy and Matter

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS1.B ; HS.PS2.B ; HS.PS3.B

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS1.B ; MS.PS3.D ; MS.LS1.C ; MS.LS2.B

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
SL.11-12.5Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-LS1-7)

HS-LS1-7    From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS1-7. Use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new compounds are formed resulting in a net transfer of energy. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the conceptual understanding of the inputs and outputs of the process of cellular respiration.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment should not include identification of the steps or specific processes involved in cellular respiration.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.C: Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms

Crosscutting Concepts

Energy and Matter

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS1.B ; HS.PS2.B ; HS.PS3.B

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS1.B ; MS.PS3.D ; MS.LS1.C ; MS.LS2.B

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
SL.11-12.5Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-LS1-7)

HS-LS1-7    From Molecules to Organisms: Structures and Processes

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS1-7. Use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the bonds of food molecules and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new compounds are formed resulting in a net transfer of energy. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the conceptual understanding of the inputs and outputs of the process of cellular respiration.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment should not include identification of the steps or specific processes involved in cellular respiration.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.C: Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms

Crosscutting Concepts

Energy and Matter

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS1.B ; HS.PS2.B ; HS.PS3.B

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS1.B ; MS.PS3.D ; MS.LS1.C ; MS.LS2.B

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
SL.11-12.5Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-LS1-7)

HS-LS2-1 Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

HS-LS2-1    Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS2-1. Use mathematical and/or computational representations to support explanations of factors that affect carrying capacity of ecosystems at different scales. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on quantitative analysis and comparison of the relationships among interdependent factors including boundaries, resources, climate, and competition. Examples of mathematical comparisons could include graphs, charts, histograms, and population changes gathered from simulations or historical data sets.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include deriving mathematical equations to make comparisons.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems

Crosscutting Concepts

Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band: N/A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.A ; MS.LS2.C; MS.ESS3.A ; MS.ESS3.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS2-1)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS2-1)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS2-1)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-LS2-1)
HSN.Q.A.1Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-LS2-1)
HSN.Q.A.2Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-LS2-1)
HSN.Q.A.3Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-LS2-1)

HS-LS2-1    Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS2-1. Use mathematical and/or computational representations to support explanations of factors that affect carrying capacity of ecosystems at different scales. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on quantitative analysis and comparison of the relationships among interdependent factors including boundaries, resources, climate, and competition. Examples of mathematical comparisons could include graphs, charts, histograms, and population changes gathered from simulations or historical data sets.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include deriving mathematical equations to make comparisons.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems

Crosscutting Concepts

Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band: N/A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.A ; MS.LS2.C; MS.ESS3.A ; MS.ESS3.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS2-1)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS2-1)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS2-1)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-LS2-1)
HSN.Q.A.1Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-LS2-1)
HSN.Q.A.2Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-LS2-1)
HSN.Q.A.3Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-LS2-1)

HS-LS2-1    Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS2-1. Use mathematical and/or computational representations to support explanations of factors that affect carrying capacity of ecosystems at different scales. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on quantitative analysis and comparison of the relationships among interdependent factors including boundaries, resources, climate, and competition. Examples of mathematical comparisons could include graphs, charts, histograms, and population changes gathered from simulations or historical data sets.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include deriving mathematical equations to make comparisons.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems

Crosscutting Concepts

Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band: N/A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.A ; MS.LS2.C; MS.ESS3.A ; MS.ESS3.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS2-1)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS2-1)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS2-1)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-LS2-1)
HSN.Q.A.1Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-LS2-1)
HSN.Q.A.2Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-LS2-1)
HSN.Q.A.3Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-LS2-1)

HS-LS2-2 Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

HS-LS2-2    Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS2-2. Use mathematical representations to support and revise explanations based on evidence about factors affecting biodiversity and populations in ecosystems of different scales. [Clarification Statement: Examples of mathematical representations include finding the average, determining trends, and using graphical comparisons of multiple sets of data.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to provided data.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge is Open to Revision in Light of New Evidence

  • Most scientific knowledge is quite durable, but is, in principle, subject to change based on new evidence and/or reinterpretation of existing evidence.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems

LS2.C: Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience

Crosscutting Concepts

Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.ESS2.E ; HS.ESS3.A ; HS.ESS3.C ; HS.ESS3.D

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.A ; MS.LS2.C ; MS.ESS3.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS2-2)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS2-2)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS2-2)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-LS2-2)
HSN.Q.A.1Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-LS2-2)
HSN.Q.A.2Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-LS2-2)
HSN.Q.A.3Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-LS2-2)

HS-LS2-2    Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS2-2. Use mathematical representations to support and revise explanations based on evidence about factors affecting biodiversity and populations in ecosystems of different scales. [Clarification Statement: Examples of mathematical representations include finding the average, determining trends, and using graphical comparisons of multiple sets of data.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to provided data.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge is Open to Revision in Light of New Evidence

  • Most scientific knowledge is quite durable, but is, in principle, subject to change based on new evidence and/or reinterpretation of existing evidence.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems

LS2.C: Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience

Crosscutting Concepts

Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.ESS2.E ; HS.ESS3.A ; HS.ESS3.C ; HS.ESS3.D

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.A ; MS.LS2.C ; MS.ESS3.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS2-2)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS2-2)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS2-2)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-LS2-2)
HSN.Q.A.1Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-LS2-2)
HSN.Q.A.2Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-LS2-2)
HSN.Q.A.3Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-LS2-2)

HS-LS2-2    Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS2-2. Use mathematical representations to support and revise explanations based on evidence about factors affecting biodiversity and populations in ecosystems of different scales. [Clarification Statement: Examples of mathematical representations include finding the average, determining trends, and using graphical comparisons of multiple sets of data.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to provided data.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge is Open to Revision in Light of New Evidence

  • Most scientific knowledge is quite durable, but is, in principle, subject to change based on new evidence and/or reinterpretation of existing evidence.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS2.A: Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems

LS2.C: Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience

Crosscutting Concepts

Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.ESS2.E ; HS.ESS3.A ; HS.ESS3.C ; HS.ESS3.D

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.A ; MS.LS2.C ; MS.ESS3.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS2-2)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS2-2)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS2-2)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-LS2-2)
HSN.Q.A.1Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-LS2-2)
HSN.Q.A.2Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-LS2-2)
HSN.Q.A.3Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-LS2-2)

HS-LS2-3 Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

HS-LS2-3    Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS2-3. Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for the cycling of matter and flow of energy in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on conceptual understanding of the role of aerobic and anaerobic respiration in different environments.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the specific chemical processes of either aerobic or anaerobic respiration.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge is Open to Revision in Light of New Evidence

  • Most scientific knowledge is quite durable, but is, in principle, subject to change based on new evidence and/or reinterpretation of existing evidence.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS2.B: Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems

Crosscutting Concepts

Energy and Matter

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS1.B ; HS.PS3.B ; HS.PS3.D ; HS.ESS2.A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS1.B ; MS.PS3.D ; MS.LS1.C ; MS.LS2.B

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS2-3)
WHST.9-12.5Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (HS-LS2-3)

HS-LS2-3    Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS2-3. Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for the cycling of matter and flow of energy in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on conceptual understanding of the role of aerobic and anaerobic respiration in different environments.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the specific chemical processes of either aerobic or anaerobic respiration.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge is Open to Revision in Light of New Evidence

  • Most scientific knowledge is quite durable, but is, in principle, subject to change based on new evidence and/or reinterpretation of existing evidence.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS2.B: Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems

Crosscutting Concepts

Energy and Matter

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS1.B ; HS.PS3.B ; HS.PS3.D ; HS.ESS2.A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS1.B ; MS.PS3.D ; MS.LS1.C ; MS.LS2.B

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS2-3)
WHST.9-12.5Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (HS-LS2-3)

HS-LS2-3    Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS2-3. Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence for the cycling of matter and flow of energy in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on conceptual understanding of the role of aerobic and anaerobic respiration in different environments.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the specific chemical processes of either aerobic or anaerobic respiration.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge is Open to Revision in Light of New Evidence

  • Most scientific knowledge is quite durable, but is, in principle, subject to change based on new evidence and/or reinterpretation of existing evidence.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS2.B: Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems

Crosscutting Concepts

Energy and Matter

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS1.B ; HS.PS3.B ; HS.PS3.D ; HS.ESS2.A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS1.B ; MS.PS3.D ; MS.LS1.C ; MS.LS2.B

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS2-3)
WHST.9-12.5Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (HS-LS2-3)

HS-LS2-4 Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

HS-LS2-4    Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS2-4. Use mathematical representations to support claims for the cycling of matter and flow of energy among organisms in an ecosystem. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using a mathematical model of stored energy in biomass to describe the transfer of energy from one trophic level to another and that matter and energy are conserved as matter cycles and energy flows through ecosystems. Emphasis is on atoms and molecules such as carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen being conserved as they move through an ecosystem.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to proportional reasoning to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS2.B: Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems

Crosscutting Concepts

Energy and Matter

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS3.B ; HS.PS3.D

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS3.D ; MS.LS1.C ; MS.LS2.B

Common Core State Standards Connections:

Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS2-4)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-LS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.1Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-LS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.2Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-LS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.3Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-LS2-4)

HS-LS2-4    Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS2-4. Use mathematical representations to support claims for the cycling of matter and flow of energy among organisms in an ecosystem. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using a mathematical model of stored energy in biomass to describe the transfer of energy from one trophic level to another and that matter and energy are conserved as matter cycles and energy flows through ecosystems. Emphasis is on atoms and molecules such as carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen being conserved as they move through an ecosystem.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to proportional reasoning to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS2.B: Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems

Crosscutting Concepts

Energy and Matter

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS3.B ; HS.PS3.D

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS3.D ; MS.LS1.C ; MS.LS2.B

Common Core State Standards Connections:

Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS2-4)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-LS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.1Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-LS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.2Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-LS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.3Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-LS2-4)

HS-LS2-4    Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS2-4. Use mathematical representations to support claims for the cycling of matter and flow of energy among organisms in an ecosystem. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using a mathematical model of stored energy in biomass to describe the transfer of energy from one trophic level to another and that matter and energy are conserved as matter cycles and energy flows through ecosystems. Emphasis is on atoms and molecules such as carbon, oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen being conserved as they move through an ecosystem.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to proportional reasoning to describe the cycling of matter and flow of energy.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS2.B: Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems

Crosscutting Concepts

Energy and Matter

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS3.B ; HS.PS3.D

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS3.D ; MS.LS1.C ; MS.LS2.B

Common Core State Standards Connections:

Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS2-4)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-LS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.1Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-LS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.2Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-LS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.3Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-LS2-4)

HS-LS2-5 Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

HS-LS2-5    Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS2-5. Develop a model to illustrate the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of carbon among the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere. [Clarification Statement: Examples of models could include simulations and mathematical models.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the specific chemical steps of photosynthesis and respiration.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show how relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS2.B: Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems

PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes

  • The main way that solar energy is captured and stored on Earth is through the complex chemical process known as photosynthesis. (secondary)

Crosscutting Concepts

Systems and System Models

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS1.B ; HS.ESS2.D

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS3.D ; MS.LS1.C ; MS.LS2.B ; MS.ESS2.A

Common Core State Standards Connections: N/A

HS-LS2-5    Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS2-5. Develop a model to illustrate the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of carbon among the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere. [Clarification Statement: Examples of models could include simulations and mathematical models.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the specific chemical steps of photosynthesis and respiration.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show how relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS2.B: Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems

PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes

  • The main way that solar energy is captured and stored on Earth is through the complex chemical process known as photosynthesis. (secondary)

Crosscutting Concepts

Systems and System Models

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS1.B ; HS.ESS2.D

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS3.D ; MS.LS1.C ; MS.LS2.B ; MS.ESS2.A

Common Core State Standards Connections: N/A

HS-LS2-5    Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS2-5. Develop a model to illustrate the role of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of carbon among the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere. [Clarification Statement: Examples of models could include simulations and mathematical models.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the specific chemical steps of photosynthesis and respiration.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show how relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS2.B: Cycles of Matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems

PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes

  • The main way that solar energy is captured and stored on Earth is through the complex chemical process known as photosynthesis. (secondary)

Crosscutting Concepts

Systems and System Models

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS1.B ; HS.ESS2.D

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS3.D ; MS.LS1.C ; MS.LS2.B ; MS.ESS2.A

Common Core State Standards Connections: N/A

HS-LS2-6 Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

HS-LS2-6    Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS2-6. Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning that the complex interactions in ecosystems maintain relatively consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable conditions, but changing conditions may result in a new ecosystem. [Clarification Statement: Examples of changes in ecosystem conditions could include modest biological or physical changes, such as moderate hunting or a seasonal flood; and extreme changes, such as volcanic eruption or sea level rise.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using appropriate and sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims and explanations about the natural and designed world(s). Arguments may also come from current scientific or historical episodes in science.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge is Open to Revision in Light of New Evidence

  • Scientific argumentation is a mode of logical discourse used to clarify the strength of relationships between ideas and evidence that may result in revision of an explanation.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS2.C: Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience

Crosscutting Concepts

Stability and Change

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.ESS2.E

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.A ; MS.LS2.C ; MS.ESS2.E ; MS.ESS3.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.9-10.8 Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claim or a recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem. (HS-LS2-6)
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS2-6)
RST.11-12.7 Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (HS-LS2-6)
RST.11-12.8 Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-LS2-6)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS2-6)
HSS-ID.A.1Represent data with plots on the real number line. (HS-LS2-6)
HSS-IC.A.1Understand statistics as a process for making inferences about population parameters based on a random sample from that population. (HS-LS2-6)
HSS-IC.B.6Evaluate reports based on data. (HS-LS2-6)

HS-LS2-6    Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS2-6. Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning that the complex interactions in ecosystems maintain relatively consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable conditions, but changing conditions may result in a new ecosystem. [Clarification Statement: Examples of changes in ecosystem conditions could include modest biological or physical changes, such as moderate hunting or a seasonal flood; and extreme changes, such as volcanic eruption or sea level rise.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using appropriate and sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims and explanations about the natural and designed world(s). Arguments may also come from current scientific or historical episodes in science.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge is Open to Revision in Light of New Evidence

  • Scientific argumentation is a mode of logical discourse used to clarify the strength of relationships between ideas and evidence that may result in revision of an explanation.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS2.C: Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience

Crosscutting Concepts

Stability and Change

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.ESS2.E

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.A ; MS.LS2.C ; MS.ESS2.E ; MS.ESS3.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.9-10.8 Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claim or a recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem. (HS-LS2-6)
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS2-6)
RST.11-12.7 Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (HS-LS2-6)
RST.11-12.8 Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-LS2-6)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS2-6)
HSS-ID.A.1Represent data with plots on the real number line. (HS-LS2-6)
HSS-IC.A.1Understand statistics as a process for making inferences about population parameters based on a random sample from that population. (HS-LS2-6)
HSS-IC.B.6Evaluate reports based on data. (HS-LS2-6)

HS-LS2-6    Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS2-6. Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning that the complex interactions in ecosystems maintain relatively consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable conditions, but changing conditions may result in a new ecosystem. [Clarification Statement: Examples of changes in ecosystem conditions could include modest biological or physical changes, such as moderate hunting or a seasonal flood; and extreme changes, such as volcanic eruption or sea level rise.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using appropriate and sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims and explanations about the natural and designed world(s). Arguments may also come from current scientific or historical episodes in science.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge is Open to Revision in Light of New Evidence

  • Scientific argumentation is a mode of logical discourse used to clarify the strength of relationships between ideas and evidence that may result in revision of an explanation.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS2.C: Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience

Crosscutting Concepts

Stability and Change

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.ESS2.E

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.A ; MS.LS2.C ; MS.ESS2.E ; MS.ESS3.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.9-10.8 Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claim or a recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem. (HS-LS2-6)
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS2-6)
RST.11-12.7 Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (HS-LS2-6)
RST.11-12.8 Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-LS2-6)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS2-6)
HSS-ID.A.1Represent data with plots on the real number line. (HS-LS2-6)
HSS-IC.A.1Understand statistics as a process for making inferences about population parameters based on a random sample from that population. (HS-LS2-6)
HSS-IC.B.6Evaluate reports based on data. (HS-LS2-6)

HS-LS2-7 Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

HS-LS2-7    Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS2-7. Design, evaluate, and refine a solution for reducing the impacts of human activities on the environment and biodiversity.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of human activities can include urbanization, building dams, and dissemination of invasive species.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS2.C: Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience

LS4.D: Biodiversity and Humans

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

Crosscutting Concepts

Stability and Change

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.ESS2.D ; HS.ESS2.E ; HS.ESS3.A ; HS.ESS3.C

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.C ; MS.ESS3.C ; MS.ESS3.D

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.9-10.8 Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claim or a recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem. (HS-LS2-7)
RST.11-12.7 Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (HS-LS2-7)
RST.11-12.8 Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-LS2-7)
WHST.9-12.7Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HS-LS2-7)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS2-7)
HSN.Q.A.1Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-LS2-7)
HSN.Q.A.2Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-LS2-7)
HSN.Q.A.3Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-LS2-7)

HS-LS2-7    Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS2-7. Design, evaluate, and refine a solution for reducing the impacts of human activities on the environment and biodiversity.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of human activities can include urbanization, building dams, and dissemination of invasive species.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS2.C: Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience

LS4.D: Biodiversity and Humans

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

Crosscutting Concepts

Stability and Change

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.ESS2.D ; HS.ESS2.E ; HS.ESS3.A ; HS.ESS3.C

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.C ; MS.ESS3.C ; MS.ESS3.D

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.9-10.8 Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claim or a recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem. (HS-LS2-7)
RST.11-12.7 Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (HS-LS2-7)
RST.11-12.8 Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-LS2-7)
WHST.9-12.7Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HS-LS2-7)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS2-7)
HSN.Q.A.1Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-LS2-7)
HSN.Q.A.2Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-LS2-7)
HSN.Q.A.3Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-LS2-7)

HS-LS2-7    Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS2-7. Design, evaluate, and refine a solution for reducing the impacts of human activities on the environment and biodiversity.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of human activities can include urbanization, building dams, and dissemination of invasive species.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS2.C: Ecosystem Dynamics, Functioning, and Resilience

LS4.D: Biodiversity and Humans

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

Crosscutting Concepts

Stability and Change

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.ESS2.D ; HS.ESS2.E ; HS.ESS3.A ; HS.ESS3.C

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.C ; MS.ESS3.C ; MS.ESS3.D

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.9-10.8 Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claim or a recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem. (HS-LS2-7)
RST.11-12.7 Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (HS-LS2-7)
RST.11-12.8 Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-LS2-7)
WHST.9-12.7Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HS-LS2-7)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS2-7)
HSN.Q.A.1Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-LS2-7)
HSN.Q.A.2Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-LS2-7)
HSN.Q.A.3Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-LS2-7)

HS-LS2-8 Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

HS-LS2-8    Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS2-8. Evaluate the evidence for the role of group behavior on individual and species’ chances to survive and reproduce. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on: (1) distinguishing between group and individual behavior, (2) identifying evidence supporting the outcomes of group behavior, and (3) developing logical and reasonable arguments based on evidence. Examples of group behaviors could include flocking, schooling, herding, and cooperative behaviors such as hunting, migrating, and swarming.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using appropriate and sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims and explanations about the natural and designed world(s). Arguments may also come from current scientific or historical episodes in science.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge is Open to Revision in Light of New Evidence

  • Scientific argumentation is a mode of logical discourse used to clarify the strength of relationships between ideas and evidence that may result in revision of an explanation.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS2.D: Social Interactions and Group Behavior

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band: N/A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS1.B

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.9-10.8 Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claim or a recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem. (HS-LS2-8)
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS2-8)
RST.11-12.7 Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (HS-LS2-8)
RST.11-12.8 Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-LS2-8)

HS-LS2-8    Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS2-8. Evaluate the evidence for the role of group behavior on individual and species’ chances to survive and reproduce. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on: (1) distinguishing between group and individual behavior, (2) identifying evidence supporting the outcomes of group behavior, and (3) developing logical and reasonable arguments based on evidence. Examples of group behaviors could include flocking, schooling, herding, and cooperative behaviors such as hunting, migrating, and swarming.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using appropriate and sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims and explanations about the natural and designed world(s). Arguments may also come from current scientific or historical episodes in science.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge is Open to Revision in Light of New Evidence

  • Scientific argumentation is a mode of logical discourse used to clarify the strength of relationships between ideas and evidence that may result in revision of an explanation.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS2.D: Social Interactions and Group Behavior

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band: N/A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS1.B

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.9-10.8 Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claim or a recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem. (HS-LS2-8)
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS2-8)
RST.11-12.7 Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (HS-LS2-8)
RST.11-12.8 Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-LS2-8)

HS-LS2-8    Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS2-8. Evaluate the evidence for the role of group behavior on individual and species’ chances to survive and reproduce. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on: (1) distinguishing between group and individual behavior, (2) identifying evidence supporting the outcomes of group behavior, and (3) developing logical and reasonable arguments based on evidence. Examples of group behaviors could include flocking, schooling, herding, and cooperative behaviors such as hunting, migrating, and swarming.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using appropriate and sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims and explanations about the natural and designed world(s). Arguments may also come from current scientific or historical episodes in science.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge is Open to Revision in Light of New Evidence

  • Scientific argumentation is a mode of logical discourse used to clarify the strength of relationships between ideas and evidence that may result in revision of an explanation.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS2.D: Social Interactions and Group Behavior

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band: N/A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS1.B

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.9-10.8 Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claim or a recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem. (HS-LS2-8)
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS2-8)
RST.11-12.7 Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (HS-LS2-8)
RST.11-12.8 Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-LS2-8)

HS-LS3-1 Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits

HS-LS3-1    Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS3-1.Ask questions to clarify relationships about the role of DNA and chromosomes in coding the instructions for characteristic traits passed from parents to offspring. [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the phases of meiosis or the biochemical mechanism of specific steps in the process.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Asking Questions and Defining Problems

Asking questions and defining problems in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to formulating, refining, and evaluating empirically testable questions and design problems using models and simulations.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.A: Structure and Function

LS3.A: Inheritance of Traits

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band: N/A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS3.A ; MS.LS3.B

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS3-1)
RST.11-12.9 Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible. (HS-LS3-1)

HS-LS3-1    Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS3-1.Ask questions to clarify relationships about the role of DNA and chromosomes in coding the instructions for characteristic traits passed from parents to offspring. [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the phases of meiosis or the biochemical mechanism of specific steps in the process.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Asking Questions and Defining Problems

Asking questions and defining problems in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to formulating, refining, and evaluating empirically testable questions and design problems using models and simulations.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.A: Structure and Function

LS3.A: Inheritance of Traits

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band: N/A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS3.A ; MS.LS3.B

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS3-1)
RST.11-12.9 Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible. (HS-LS3-1)

HS-LS3-1    Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS3-1.Ask questions to clarify relationships about the role of DNA and chromosomes in coding the instructions for characteristic traits passed from parents to offspring. [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the phases of meiosis or the biochemical mechanism of specific steps in the process.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Asking Questions and Defining Problems

Asking questions and defining problems in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to formulating, refining, and evaluating empirically testable questions and design problems using models and simulations.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS1.A: Structure and Function

LS3.A: Inheritance of Traits

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band: N/A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS3.A ; MS.LS3.B

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS3-1)
RST.11-12.9 Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible. (HS-LS3-1)

HS-LS3-2 Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits

HS-LS3-2    Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS3-2. Make and defend a claim based on evidence that inheritable genetic variations may result from: (1) new genetic combinations through meiosis, (2) viable errors occurring during replication, and/or (3) mutations caused by environmental factors. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using data to support arguments for the way variation occurs.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the phases of meiosis or the biochemical mechanism of specific steps in the process.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using appropriate and sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims and explanations about the natural and designed world(s). Arguments may also come from current scientific or historical episodes in science.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS3.B: Variation of Traits

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band: N/A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS3.A ; MS.LS3.B

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS3-2)
WHST.9-12.1Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content. (HS-LS3-2)
Mathematics -
MP.2Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS3-2)

HS-LS3-2    Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS3-2. Make and defend a claim based on evidence that inheritable genetic variations may result from: (1) new genetic combinations through meiosis, (2) viable errors occurring during replication, and/or (3) mutations caused by environmental factors. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using data to support arguments for the way variation occurs.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the phases of meiosis or the biochemical mechanism of specific steps in the process.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using appropriate and sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims and explanations about the natural and designed world(s). Arguments may also come from current scientific or historical episodes in science.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS3.B: Variation of Traits

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band: N/A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS3.A ; MS.LS3.B

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS3-2)
WHST.9-12.1Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content. (HS-LS3-2)
Mathematics -
MP.2Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS3-2)

HS-LS3-2    Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS3-2. Make and defend a claim based on evidence that inheritable genetic variations may result from: (1) new genetic combinations through meiosis, (2) viable errors occurring during replication, and/or (3) mutations caused by environmental factors. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using data to support arguments for the way variation occurs.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the phases of meiosis or the biochemical mechanism of specific steps in the process.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using appropriate and sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims and explanations about the natural and designed world(s). Arguments may also come from current scientific or historical episodes in science.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS3.B: Variation of Traits

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band: N/A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS3.A ; MS.LS3.B

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS3-2)
WHST.9-12.1Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content. (HS-LS3-2)
Mathematics -
MP.2Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS3-2)

HS-LS3-3 Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits

HS-LS3-3    Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS3-3. Apply concepts of statistics and probability to explain the variation and distribution of expressed traits in a population. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the use of mathematics to describe the probability of traits as it relates to genetic and environmental factors in the expression of traits.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include Hardy-Weinberg calculations.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS3.B: Variation of Traits

Crosscutting Concepts

Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  - - - - - -

           Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science is a Human Endeavor

  • Technological advances have influenced the progress of science and science has influenced advances in technology. (HS-LS3-3)
  • Science and engineering are influenced by society and society is influenced by science and engineering.

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.LS2.A ; HS.LS2.C ; HS.LS4.B ; HS.LS4.C

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.A ; MS.LS3.B ; MS.LS4.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

Mathematics -
MP.2Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS3-3)

HS-LS3-3    Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS3-3. Apply concepts of statistics and probability to explain the variation and distribution of expressed traits in a population. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the use of mathematics to describe the probability of traits as it relates to genetic and environmental factors in the expression of traits.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include Hardy-Weinberg calculations.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS3.B: Variation of Traits

Crosscutting Concepts

Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  - - - - - -

           Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science is a Human Endeavor

  • Technological advances have influenced the progress of science and science has influenced advances in technology. (HS-LS3-3)
  • Science and engineering are influenced by society and society is influenced by science and engineering.

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.LS2.A ; HS.LS2.C ; HS.LS4.B ; HS.LS4.C

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.A ; MS.LS3.B ; MS.LS4.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

Mathematics -
MP.2Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS3-3)

HS-LS3-3    Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS3-3. Apply concepts of statistics and probability to explain the variation and distribution of expressed traits in a population. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the use of mathematics to describe the probability of traits as it relates to genetic and environmental factors in the expression of traits.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include Hardy-Weinberg calculations.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS3.B: Variation of Traits

Crosscutting Concepts

Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  - - - - - -

           Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science is a Human Endeavor

  • Technological advances have influenced the progress of science and science has influenced advances in technology. (HS-LS3-3)
  • Science and engineering are influenced by society and society is influenced by science and engineering.

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.LS2.A ; HS.LS2.C ; HS.LS4.B ; HS.LS4.C

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.A ; MS.LS3.B ; MS.LS4.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

Mathematics -
MP.2Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS3-3)

HS-LS4-1 Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

HS-LS4-1    Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS4-1. Communicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on a conceptual understanding of the role each line of evidence has relating to common ancestry and biological evolution. Examples of evidence could include similarities in DNA sequences, anatomical structures, and order of appearance of structures in embryological development.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods, and designs.

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

           Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

  • A scientific theory is a substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment and the science community validates each theory before it is accepted. If new evidence is discovered that the theory does not accommodate, the theory is generally modified in light of this new evidence.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS4.A: Evidence of Common Ancestry and Diversity

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

           Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems

  • Scientific knowledge is based on the assumption that natural laws operate today as they did in the past and they will continue to do so in the future.

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.LS3.A ; HS.LS3.B ; HS.ESS1.C

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

LS3.A ; LS3.B ; MS.LS4.A ; MS.ESS1.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST-11.12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS4-1)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS4-1)
WHST.9-12.9Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-LS4-1)
SL.11-12.4Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. (HS-LS4-1)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS4-1)

HS-LS4-1    Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS4-1. Communicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on a conceptual understanding of the role each line of evidence has relating to common ancestry and biological evolution. Examples of evidence could include similarities in DNA sequences, anatomical structures, and order of appearance of structures in embryological development.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods, and designs.

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

           Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

  • A scientific theory is a substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment and the science community validates each theory before it is accepted. If new evidence is discovered that the theory does not accommodate, the theory is generally modified in light of this new evidence.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS4.A: Evidence of Common Ancestry and Diversity

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

           Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems

  • Scientific knowledge is based on the assumption that natural laws operate today as they did in the past and they will continue to do so in the future.

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.LS3.A ; HS.LS3.B ; HS.ESS1.C

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

LS3.A ; LS3.B ; MS.LS4.A ; MS.ESS1.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST-11.12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS4-1)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS4-1)
WHST.9-12.9Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-LS4-1)
SL.11-12.4Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. (HS-LS4-1)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS4-1)

HS-LS4-1    Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS4-1. Communicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on a conceptual understanding of the role each line of evidence has relating to common ancestry and biological evolution. Examples of evidence could include similarities in DNA sequences, anatomical structures, and order of appearance of structures in embryological development.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods, and designs.

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

           Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

  • A scientific theory is a substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment and the science community validates each theory before it is accepted. If new evidence is discovered that the theory does not accommodate, the theory is generally modified in light of this new evidence.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS4.A: Evidence of Common Ancestry and Diversity

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

           Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems

  • Scientific knowledge is based on the assumption that natural laws operate today as they did in the past and they will continue to do so in the future.

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.LS3.A ; HS.LS3.B ; HS.ESS1.C

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

LS3.A ; LS3.B ; MS.LS4.A ; MS.ESS1.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST-11.12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS4-1)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS4-1)
WHST.9-12.9Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-LS4-1)
SL.11-12.4Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. (HS-LS4-1)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS4-1)

HS-LS4-2 Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

HS-LS4-2    Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS4-2. Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily results from four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using evidence to explain the influence each of the four factors has on number of organisms, behaviors, morphology, or physiology in terms of ability to compete for limited resources and subsequent survival of individuals and adaptation of species. Examples of evidence could include mathematical models such as simple distribution graphs and proportional reasoning.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include other mechanisms of evolution, such as genetic drift, gene flow through migration, and co-evolution.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS4.B: Natural Selection

LS4.C: Adaptation

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.LS2.A ; HS.LS2.D ; HS.LS3.B ; HS.ESS2.E ; HS.ESS3.A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.A ; LS3.B ; MS.LS4.B ; MS.LS4.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST-11.12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS4-2)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS4-2)
WHST.9-12.9Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-LS4-2)
SL.11-12.4Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. (HS-LS4-2)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS4-2)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-LS4-2)

HS-LS4-2    Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS4-2. Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily results from four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using evidence to explain the influence each of the four factors has on number of organisms, behaviors, morphology, or physiology in terms of ability to compete for limited resources and subsequent survival of individuals and adaptation of species. Examples of evidence could include mathematical models such as simple distribution graphs and proportional reasoning.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include other mechanisms of evolution, such as genetic drift, gene flow through migration, and co-evolution.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS4.B: Natural Selection

LS4.C: Adaptation

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.LS2.A ; HS.LS2.D ; HS.LS3.B ; HS.ESS2.E ; HS.ESS3.A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.A ; LS3.B ; MS.LS4.B ; MS.LS4.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST-11.12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS4-2)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS4-2)
WHST.9-12.9Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-LS4-2)
SL.11-12.4Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. (HS-LS4-2)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS4-2)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-LS4-2)

HS-LS4-2    Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS4-2. Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily results from four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using evidence to explain the influence each of the four factors has on number of organisms, behaviors, morphology, or physiology in terms of ability to compete for limited resources and subsequent survival of individuals and adaptation of species. Examples of evidence could include mathematical models such as simple distribution graphs and proportional reasoning.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include other mechanisms of evolution, such as genetic drift, gene flow through migration, and co-evolution.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS4.B: Natural Selection

LS4.C: Adaptation

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.LS2.A ; HS.LS2.D ; HS.LS3.B ; HS.ESS2.E ; HS.ESS3.A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.A ; LS3.B ; MS.LS4.B ; MS.LS4.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST-11.12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS4-2)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS4-2)
WHST.9-12.9Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-LS4-2)
SL.11-12.4Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. (HS-LS4-2)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS4-2)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-LS4-2)

HS-LS4-3 Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

HS-LS4-3    Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS4-3. Apply concepts of statistics and probability to support explanations that organisms with an advantageous heritable trait tend to increase in proportion to organisms lacking this trait. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on analyzing shifts in numerical distribution of traits and using these shifts as evidence to support explanations.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to basic statistical and graphical analysis. Assessment does not include allele frequency calculations.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS4.B: Natural Selection

LS4.C: Adaptation

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.LS2.A ; HS.LS2.D ; HS.LS3.B

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.A ; LS3.B ; MS.LS4.B ; MS.LS4.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST-11.12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS4-3)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS4-3)
WHST.9-12.9Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-LS4-3)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS4-3)

HS-LS4-3    Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS4-3. Apply concepts of statistics and probability to support explanations that organisms with an advantageous heritable trait tend to increase in proportion to organisms lacking this trait. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on analyzing shifts in numerical distribution of traits and using these shifts as evidence to support explanations.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to basic statistical and graphical analysis. Assessment does not include allele frequency calculations.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS4.B: Natural Selection

LS4.C: Adaptation

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.LS2.A ; HS.LS2.D ; HS.LS3.B

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.A ; LS3.B ; MS.LS4.B ; MS.LS4.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST-11.12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS4-3)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS4-3)
WHST.9-12.9Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-LS4-3)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS4-3)

HS-LS4-3    Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS4-3. Apply concepts of statistics and probability to support explanations that organisms with an advantageous heritable trait tend to increase in proportion to organisms lacking this trait. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on analyzing shifts in numerical distribution of traits and using these shifts as evidence to support explanations.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to basic statistical and graphical analysis. Assessment does not include allele frequency calculations.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS4.B: Natural Selection

LS4.C: Adaptation

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.LS2.A ; HS.LS2.D ; HS.LS3.B

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.A ; LS3.B ; MS.LS4.B ; MS.LS4.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST-11.12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS4-3)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS4-3)
WHST.9-12.9Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-LS4-3)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS4-3)

HS-LS4-4 Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

HS-LS4-4    Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS4-4. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how natural selection leads to adaptation of populations. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using data to provide evidence for how specific biotic and abiotic differences in ecosystems (such as ranges of seasonal temperature, long-term climate change, acidity, light, geographic barriers, or evolution of other organisms) contribute to a change in gene frequency over time, leading to adaptation of populations.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS4.C: Adaptation

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

           Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems

  • Scientific knowledge is based on the assumption that natural laws operate today as they did in the past and they will continue to do so in the future.

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.LS2.A ; HS.LS2.D

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS4.B ; MS.LS4.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST-11.12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS4-4)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS4-4)
WHST.9-12.9Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-LS4-4)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS4-4)

HS-LS4-4    Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS4-4. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how natural selection leads to adaptation of populations. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using data to provide evidence for how specific biotic and abiotic differences in ecosystems (such as ranges of seasonal temperature, long-term climate change, acidity, light, geographic barriers, or evolution of other organisms) contribute to a change in gene frequency over time, leading to adaptation of populations.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS4.C: Adaptation

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

           Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems

  • Scientific knowledge is based on the assumption that natural laws operate today as they did in the past and they will continue to do so in the future.

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.LS2.A ; HS.LS2.D

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS4.B ; MS.LS4.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST-11.12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS4-4)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS4-4)
WHST.9-12.9Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-LS4-4)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS4-4)

HS-LS4-4    Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS4-4. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how natural selection leads to adaptation of populations. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using data to provide evidence for how specific biotic and abiotic differences in ecosystems (such as ranges of seasonal temperature, long-term climate change, acidity, light, geographic barriers, or evolution of other organisms) contribute to a change in gene frequency over time, leading to adaptation of populations.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS4.C: Adaptation

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

           Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems

  • Scientific knowledge is based on the assumption that natural laws operate today as they did in the past and they will continue to do so in the future.

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.LS2.A ; HS.LS2.D

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS4.B ; MS.LS4.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST-11.12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS4-4)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS4-4)
WHST.9-12.9Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-LS4-4)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS4-4)

HS-LS4-5 Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

HS-LS4-5    Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS4-5. Evaluate the evidence supporting claims that changes in environmental conditions may result in: (1) increases in the number of individuals of some species, (2) the emergence of new species over time, and (3) the extinction of other species. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on determining cause and effect relationships for how changes to the environment such as deforestation, fishing, application of fertilizers, drought, flood, and the rate of change of the environment affect distribution or disappearance of traits in species.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using appropriate and sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims and explanations about the natural and designed world(s). Arguments may also come from current or historical episodes in science.

  • Evaluate the evidence behind currently accepted explanations or solutions to determine the merits of arguments.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS4.C: Adaptation

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.LS2.A ; HS.LS2.D ; HS.LS3.B ; HS.ESS2.E ; HS.ESS3.A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.A ; MS.LS2.C ; MS.LS4.C ; HS.ESS3.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST-11.12.8 Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-LS4-5)
WHST.9-12.9Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-LS4-5)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS4-5)

HS-LS4-5    Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS4-5. Evaluate the evidence supporting claims that changes in environmental conditions may result in: (1) increases in the number of individuals of some species, (2) the emergence of new species over time, and (3) the extinction of other species. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on determining cause and effect relationships for how changes to the environment such as deforestation, fishing, application of fertilizers, drought, flood, and the rate of change of the environment affect distribution or disappearance of traits in species.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using appropriate and sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims and explanations about the natural and designed world(s). Arguments may also come from current or historical episodes in science.

  • Evaluate the evidence behind currently accepted explanations or solutions to determine the merits of arguments.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS4.C: Adaptation

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.LS2.A ; HS.LS2.D ; HS.LS3.B ; HS.ESS2.E ; HS.ESS3.A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.A ; MS.LS2.C ; MS.LS4.C ; HS.ESS3.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST-11.12.8 Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-LS4-5)
WHST.9-12.9Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-LS4-5)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS4-5)

HS-LS4-5    Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS4-5. Evaluate the evidence supporting claims that changes in environmental conditions may result in: (1) increases in the number of individuals of some species, (2) the emergence of new species over time, and (3) the extinction of other species. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on determining cause and effect relationships for how changes to the environment such as deforestation, fishing, application of fertilizers, drought, flood, and the rate of change of the environment affect distribution or disappearance of traits in species.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using appropriate and sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims and explanations about the natural and designed world(s). Arguments may also come from current or historical episodes in science.

  • Evaluate the evidence behind currently accepted explanations or solutions to determine the merits of arguments.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS4.C: Adaptation

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.LS2.A ; HS.LS2.D ; HS.LS3.B ; HS.ESS2.E ; HS.ESS3.A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.A ; MS.LS2.C ; MS.LS4.C ; HS.ESS3.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST-11.12.8 Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-LS4-5)
WHST.9-12.9Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-LS4-5)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS4-5)

HS-LS4-6 Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

HS-LS4-6    Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS4-6. Create or revise a simulation to test a solution to mitigate adverse impacts of human activity on biodiversity.* [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on designing solutions for a proposed problem related to threatened or endangered species, or to genetic variation of organisms for multiple species.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

  • Create or revise a simulation of a phenomenon, designed device, process, or system.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS4.C: Adaptation

LS4.D: Biodiversity and Humans

  • Humans depend on the living world for the resources and other benefits provided by biodiversity. But human activity is also having adverse impacts on biodiversity through overpopulation, overexploitation, habitat destruction, pollution, introduction of invasive species, and climate change. Thus sustaining biodiversity so that ecosystem functioning and productivity are maintained is essential to supporting and enhancing life on Earth. Sustaining biodiversity also aids humanity by preserving landscapes of recreational or inspirational value. (Note: This Disciplinary Core Idea is also addressed by HS-LS2-7.)

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

  • When evaluating solutions, it is important to take into account a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, and to consider social, cultural, and environmental impacts. (secondary)
  • Both physical models and computers can be used in various ways to aid in the engineering design process. Computers are useful for a variety of purposes, such as running simulations to test different ways of solving a problem or to see which one is most efficient or economical; and in making a persuasive presentation to a client about how a given design will meet his or her needs. (secondary)

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.ESS2.D ; HS.ESS2.E ; HS.ESS3.A ; HS.ESS3.C ; HS.ESS3.D

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.C ; HS.ESS3.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
WHST.9-12.5Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (HS-LS4-6)
WHST.9-12.7Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HS-LS4-6)

HS-LS4-6    Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS4-6. Create or revise a simulation to test a solution to mitigate adverse impacts of human activity on biodiversity.* [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on designing solutions for a proposed problem related to threatened or endangered species, or to genetic variation of organisms for multiple species.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

  • Create or revise a simulation of a phenomenon, designed device, process, or system.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS4.C: Adaptation

LS4.D: Biodiversity and Humans

  • Humans depend on the living world for the resources and other benefits provided by biodiversity. But human activity is also having adverse impacts on biodiversity through overpopulation, overexploitation, habitat destruction, pollution, introduction of invasive species, and climate change. Thus sustaining biodiversity so that ecosystem functioning and productivity are maintained is essential to supporting and enhancing life on Earth. Sustaining biodiversity also aids humanity by preserving landscapes of recreational or inspirational value. (Note: This Disciplinary Core Idea is also addressed by HS-LS2-7.)

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

  • When evaluating solutions, it is important to take into account a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, and to consider social, cultural, and environmental impacts. (secondary)
  • Both physical models and computers can be used in various ways to aid in the engineering design process. Computers are useful for a variety of purposes, such as running simulations to test different ways of solving a problem or to see which one is most efficient or economical; and in making a persuasive presentation to a client about how a given design will meet his or her needs. (secondary)

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.ESS2.D ; HS.ESS2.E ; HS.ESS3.A ; HS.ESS3.C ; HS.ESS3.D

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.C ; HS.ESS3.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
WHST.9-12.5Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (HS-LS4-6)
WHST.9-12.7Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HS-LS4-6)

HS-LS4-6    Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS4-6. Create or revise a simulation to test a solution to mitigate adverse impacts of human activity on biodiversity.* [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on designing solutions for a proposed problem related to threatened or endangered species, or to genetic variation of organisms for multiple species.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

  • Create or revise a simulation of a phenomenon, designed device, process, or system.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS4.C: Adaptation

LS4.D: Biodiversity and Humans

  • Humans depend on the living world for the resources and other benefits provided by biodiversity. But human activity is also having adverse impacts on biodiversity through overpopulation, overexploitation, habitat destruction, pollution, introduction of invasive species, and climate change. Thus sustaining biodiversity so that ecosystem functioning and productivity are maintained is essential to supporting and enhancing life on Earth. Sustaining biodiversity also aids humanity by preserving landscapes of recreational or inspirational value. (Note: This Disciplinary Core Idea is also addressed by HS-LS2-7.)

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

  • When evaluating solutions, it is important to take into account a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, and to consider social, cultural, and environmental impacts. (secondary)
  • Both physical models and computers can be used in various ways to aid in the engineering design process. Computers are useful for a variety of purposes, such as running simulations to test different ways of solving a problem or to see which one is most efficient or economical; and in making a persuasive presentation to a client about how a given design will meet his or her needs. (secondary)

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.ESS2.D ; HS.ESS2.E ; HS.ESS3.A ; HS.ESS3.C ; HS.ESS3.D

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.C ; HS.ESS3.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
WHST.9-12.5Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. (HS-LS4-6)
WHST.9-12.7Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HS-LS4-6)