HS-ETS1   Engineering Design

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-ETS1-1. Analyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants. Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering. Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and trade-offs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts. Use a computer simulation to model the impact of proposed solutions to a complex real-world problem with numerous criteria and constraints on interactions within and between systems relevant to the problem.
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

## Science and Engineering Practices

### Asking Questions and Defining Problems

Asking questions and defining problems in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to formulating, refining, and evaluating empirically testable questions and design problems using models and simulations.

### Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

### Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles and theories.

## Disciplinary Core Ideas

### ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

• Criteria may need to be broken down into simpler ones that can be approached systematically, and decisions about the priority of certain criteria over others (trade-offs) may be needed. (HS-ETS1-2)

## Crosscutting Concepts

### Systems and System Models

• Models (e.g., physical, mathematical, computer models) can be used to simulate systems and interactions—including energy, matter, and information flows— within and between systems at different scales. (HS-ETS1-4)
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

### Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on Society and the Natural World

• New technologies can have deep impacts on society and the environment, including some that were not anticipated. Analysis of costs and benefits is a critical aspect of decisions about technology. (HS-ETS1-1) (HS-ETS1-3)

Connections to HS-ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems include:

Physical Science: HS-PS2-3, HS-PS3-3

Connections to HS-ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions Problems include:

Earth and Space Science: HS-ESS3-2, HS-ESS3-4 Life Science: HS-LS2-7, HS-LS4-6

Connections to MS-ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution include:

Physical Science: HS-PS1-6, HS-PS2-3

Articulation of DCIs across grade-levels:

MS.ETS1.A (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-2),(HS-ETS1-3),(HS-ETS1-4); MS.ETS1.B (HS-ETS1-2),(HS-ETS1-3),(HS-ETS1-4); MS.ETS1.C (HS-ETS1-2),(HS-ETS1-4)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

RST.11-12.7 ELA/Literacy - Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-3) Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-3) Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible. (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-3) Mathematics - Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-3),(HS-ETS1-4) Model with mathematics. (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-2),(HS-ETS1-3),(HS-ETS1-4)

HS-ETS1   Engineering Design

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-ETS1-1. Analyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants. Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering. Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and trade-offs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts. Use a computer simulation to model the impact of proposed solutions to a complex real-world problem with numerous criteria and constraints on interactions within and between systems relevant to the problem.
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

## Science and Engineering Practices

### Asking Questions and Defining Problems

Asking questions and defining problems in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to formulating, refining, and evaluating empirically testable questions and design problems using models and simulations.

### Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

### Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles and theories.

## Disciplinary Core Ideas

### ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

• Criteria may need to be broken down into simpler ones that can be approached systematically, and decisions about the priority of certain criteria over others (trade-offs) may be needed. (HS-ETS1-2)

## Crosscutting Concepts

### Systems and System Models

• Models (e.g., physical, mathematical, computer models) can be used to simulate systems and interactions—including energy, matter, and information flows— within and between systems at different scales. (HS-ETS1-4)
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

### Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on Society and the Natural World

• New technologies can have deep impacts on society and the environment, including some that were not anticipated. Analysis of costs and benefits is a critical aspect of decisions about technology. (HS-ETS1-1) (HS-ETS1-3)

Connections to HS-ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems include:

Physical Science: HS-PS2-3, HS-PS3-3

Connections to HS-ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions Problems include:

Earth and Space Science: HS-ESS3-2, HS-ESS3-4 Life Science: HS-LS2-7, HS-LS4-6

Connections to MS-ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution include:

Physical Science: HS-PS1-6, HS-PS2-3

Articulation of DCIs across grade-levels:

MS.ETS1.A (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-2),(HS-ETS1-3),(HS-ETS1-4); MS.ETS1.B (HS-ETS1-2),(HS-ETS1-3),(HS-ETS1-4); MS.ETS1.C (HS-ETS1-2),(HS-ETS1-4)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

RST.11-12.7 ELA/Literacy - Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-3) Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-3) Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible. (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-3) Mathematics - Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-3),(HS-ETS1-4) Model with mathematics. (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-2),(HS-ETS1-3),(HS-ETS1-4)

HS-ETS1   Engineering Design

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-ETS1-1. Analyze a major global challenge to specify qualitative and quantitative criteria and constraints for solutions that account for societal needs and wants. Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering. Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and trade-offs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts. Use a computer simulation to model the impact of proposed solutions to a complex real-world problem with numerous criteria and constraints on interactions within and between systems relevant to the problem.
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

## Science and Engineering Practices

### Asking Questions and Defining Problems

Asking questions and defining problems in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to formulating, refining, and evaluating empirically testable questions and design problems using models and simulations.

### Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

### Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles and theories.

## Disciplinary Core Ideas

### ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

• Criteria may need to be broken down into simpler ones that can be approached systematically, and decisions about the priority of certain criteria over others (trade-offs) may be needed. (HS-ETS1-2)

## Crosscutting Concepts

### Systems and System Models

• Models (e.g., physical, mathematical, computer models) can be used to simulate systems and interactions—including energy, matter, and information flows— within and between systems at different scales. (HS-ETS1-4)
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

### Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on Society and the Natural World

• New technologies can have deep impacts on society and the environment, including some that were not anticipated. Analysis of costs and benefits is a critical aspect of decisions about technology. (HS-ETS1-1) (HS-ETS1-3)

Connections to HS-ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems include:

Physical Science: HS-PS2-3, HS-PS3-3

Connections to HS-ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions Problems include:

Earth and Space Science: HS-ESS3-2, HS-ESS3-4 Life Science: HS-LS2-7, HS-LS4-6

Connections to MS-ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution include:

Physical Science: HS-PS1-6, HS-PS2-3

Articulation of DCIs across grade-levels:

MS.ETS1.A (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-2),(HS-ETS1-3),(HS-ETS1-4); MS.ETS1.B (HS-ETS1-2),(HS-ETS1-3),(HS-ETS1-4); MS.ETS1.C (HS-ETS1-2),(HS-ETS1-4)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

RST.11-12.7 ELA/Literacy - Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-3) Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-3) Synthesize information from a range of sources (e.g., texts, experiments, simulations) into a coherent understanding of a process, phenomenon, or concept, resolving conflicting information when possible. (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-3) Mathematics - Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-3),(HS-ETS1-4) Model with mathematics. (HS-ETS1-1),(HS-ETS1-2),(HS-ETS1-3),(HS-ETS1-4)

* The performance expectations marked with an asterisk integrate traditional science content with engineering through a Practice or Disciplinary Core Idea.

The section entitled “Disciplinary Core Ideas” is reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Integrated and reprinted with permission from the National Academy of Sciences.

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