HS-PS2-1 Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

HS-PS2-1   Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-PS2-1. Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration. [Clarification Statement: Examples of data could include tables or graphs of position or velocity as a function of time for objects subject to a net unbalanced force, such as a falling object, an object sliding down a ramp, or a moving object being pulled by a constant force.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to one-dimensional motion and to macroscopic objects moving at non-relativistic speeds.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

  • Theories and laws provide explanations in science.
  • Laws are statements or descriptions of the relationships among observable phenomena.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS2.A: Forces and Motion

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-level:

HS.PS3.C ; HS.ESS1.A ; HS.ESS1.C ; H.ESS2.C

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS2.A ; MS.PS3.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-PS2-1)
RST.11-12.7 Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (HS-PS2-1)
WHST.11-12.9 Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-PS2-1)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-PS2-1)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-PS2-1)
HSN.Q.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-PS2-1)
HSN.Q.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-PS2-1)
HSN.Q.A.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-PS2-1)
HSA.SSE.A.1 Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. (HS-PS2-1)
HSA.SSE.B.3 Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression. (HS-PS2-1)
HSA.CED.A.1 Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. (HS-PS2-1)
HSA.CED.A.2 Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. (HS-PS2-1)
HSA.CED.A.4 Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. (HS-PS2-1)
HSF-IF.C.7 Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by in hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases. (HS-PS2-1)
HSS-IS.A.1 Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots). (HS-PS2-1)

HS-PS2-1   Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-PS2-1. Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration. [Clarification Statement: Examples of data could include tables or graphs of position or velocity as a function of time for objects subject to a net unbalanced force, such as a falling object, an object sliding down a ramp, or a moving object being pulled by a constant force.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to one-dimensional motion and to macroscopic objects moving at non-relativistic speeds.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

  • Theories and laws provide explanations in science.
  • Laws are statements or descriptions of the relationships among observable phenomena.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS2.A: Forces and Motion

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-level:

HS.PS3.C ; HS.ESS1.A ; HS.ESS1.C ; H.ESS2.C

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS2.A ; MS.PS3.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-PS2-1)
RST.11-12.7 Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (HS-PS2-1)
WHST.11-12.9 Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-PS2-1)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-PS2-1)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-PS2-1)
HSN.Q.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-PS2-1)
HSN.Q.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-PS2-1)
HSN.Q.A.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-PS2-1)
HSA.SSE.A.1 Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. (HS-PS2-1)
HSA.SSE.B.3 Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression. (HS-PS2-1)
HSA.CED.A.1 Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. (HS-PS2-1)
HSA.CED.A.2 Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. (HS-PS2-1)
HSA.CED.A.4 Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. (HS-PS2-1)
HSF-IF.C.7 Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by in hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases. (HS-PS2-1)
HSS-IS.A.1 Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots). (HS-PS2-1)

HS-PS2-1   Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-PS2-1. Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration. [Clarification Statement: Examples of data could include tables or graphs of position or velocity as a function of time for objects subject to a net unbalanced force, such as a falling object, an object sliding down a ramp, or a moving object being pulled by a constant force.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to one-dimensional motion and to macroscopic objects moving at non-relativistic speeds.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

  • Theories and laws provide explanations in science.
  • Laws are statements or descriptions of the relationships among observable phenomena.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS2.A: Forces and Motion

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-level:

HS.PS3.C ; HS.ESS1.A ; HS.ESS1.C ; H.ESS2.C

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS2.A ; MS.PS3.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-PS2-1)
RST.11-12.7 Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (HS-PS2-1)
WHST.11-12.9 Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-PS2-1)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-PS2-1)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-PS2-1)
HSN.Q.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-PS2-1)
HSN.Q.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-PS2-1)
HSN.Q.A.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-PS2-1)
HSA.SSE.A.1 Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. (HS-PS2-1)
HSA.SSE.B.3 Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression. (HS-PS2-1)
HSA.CED.A.1 Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. (HS-PS2-1)
HSA.CED.A.2 Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. (HS-PS2-1)
HSA.CED.A.4 Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. (HS-PS2-1)
HSF-IF.C.7 Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by in hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases. (HS-PS2-1)
HSS-IS.A.1 Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots). (HS-PS2-1)

* The performance expectations marked with an asterisk integrate traditional science content with engineering through a Practice or Disciplinary Core Idea.

The section entitled “Disciplinary Core Ideas” is reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Integrated and reprinted with permission from the National Academy of Sciences.