HS.Forces and Interactions

HS-PS2Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-PS2-1.Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration. [Clarification Statement: Examples of data could include tables or graphs of position or velocity as a function of time for objects subject to a net unbalanced force, such as a falling object, an object rolling down a ramp, or a moving object being pulled by a constant force.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to one-dimensional motion and to macroscopic objects moving at non-relativistic speeds.]
HS-PS2-2. Use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the quantitative conservation of momentum in interactions and the qualitative meaning of this principle.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to systems of two macroscopic bodies moving in one dimension.]
HS-PS2-3. Apply scientific and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of evaluation and refinement could include determining the success of the device at protecting an object from damage and modifying the design to improve it. Examples of a device could include a football helmet or a parachute.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to qualitative evaluations and/or algebraic manipulations.]
HS-PS2-4. Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both quantitative and conceptual descriptions of gravitational and electric fields.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to systems with two objects.]
HS-PS2-5. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that an electric current can produce a magnetic field and that a changing magnetic field can produce an electric current. [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to designing and conducting investigations with provided materials and tools.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical and empirical models.

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking at the 9–12 level builds on K–8 and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

  • Theories and laws provide explanations in science. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-4)
  • Laws are statements or descriptions of the relationships among observable phenomena. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-4)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS2.A: Forces and Motion

PS2.B: Types of Interactions

PS3.A: Definitions of Energy

ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting an Engineering Problem

ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Cause and Effect

Systems and System Models

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-level:

HS.PS3.A (HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5); HS.PS3.C (HS-PS2-1); HS.PS4.B (HS-PS2-5); HS.ESS1.A (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-4); HS.ESS1.B (HS-PS2-4); HS.ESS1.C (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-4); HS.ESS2.A (HS-PS2-5); HS.ESS2.C (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-4); HS.ESS3.A (HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS2.A (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-3); MS.PS2.B (HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5); MS.PS3.C (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-3); MS.ESS1.B (HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-PS2-1)
RST.11-12.7 Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (HS-PS2-1)
WHST.11-12.7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HS-PS2-3),(HS-PS2-5)
WHST.11-12.8 Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. (HS-PS2-5)
WHST.11-12.9 Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-5)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-4)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5)
HSN.Q.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5)
HSN.Q.A.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5)
HSA.SSE.A.1Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-4)
HSA.SSE.B.3Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-4)
HSA.CED.A.1Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2)
HSA.CED.A.2Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2)
HSA.CED.A.4Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2)
HSF-IF.C.7Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by in hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases. (HS-PS2-1)
HSS-IS.A.1Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots). (HS-PS2-1)

HS-PS2Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-PS2-1.Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration. [Clarification Statement: Examples of data could include tables or graphs of position or velocity as a function of time for objects subject to a net unbalanced force, such as a falling object, an object rolling down a ramp, or a moving object being pulled by a constant force.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to one-dimensional motion and to macroscopic objects moving at non-relativistic speeds.]
HS-PS2-2. Use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the quantitative conservation of momentum in interactions and the qualitative meaning of this principle.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to systems of two macroscopic bodies moving in one dimension.]
HS-PS2-3. Apply scientific and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of evaluation and refinement could include determining the success of the device at protecting an object from damage and modifying the design to improve it. Examples of a device could include a football helmet or a parachute.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to qualitative evaluations and/or algebraic manipulations.]
HS-PS2-4. Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both quantitative and conceptual descriptions of gravitational and electric fields.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to systems with two objects.]
HS-PS2-5. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that an electric current can produce a magnetic field and that a changing magnetic field can produce an electric current. [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to designing and conducting investigations with provided materials and tools.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical and empirical models.

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking at the 9–12 level builds on K–8 and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

  • Theories and laws provide explanations in science. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-4)
  • Laws are statements or descriptions of the relationships among observable phenomena. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-4)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS2.A: Forces and Motion

PS2.B: Types of Interactions

PS3.A: Definitions of Energy

ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting an Engineering Problem

ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Cause and Effect

Systems and System Models

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-level:

HS.PS3.A (HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5); HS.PS3.C (HS-PS2-1); HS.PS4.B (HS-PS2-5); HS.ESS1.A (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-4); HS.ESS1.B (HS-PS2-4); HS.ESS1.C (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-4); HS.ESS2.A (HS-PS2-5); HS.ESS2.C (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-4); HS.ESS3.A (HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS2.A (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-3); MS.PS2.B (HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5); MS.PS3.C (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-3); MS.ESS1.B (HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-PS2-1)
RST.11-12.7 Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (HS-PS2-1)
WHST.11-12.7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HS-PS2-3),(HS-PS2-5)
WHST.11-12.8 Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. (HS-PS2-5)
WHST.11-12.9 Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-5)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-4)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5)
HSN.Q.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5)
HSN.Q.A.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5)
HSA.SSE.A.1Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-4)
HSA.SSE.B.3Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-4)
HSA.CED.A.1Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2)
HSA.CED.A.2Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2)
HSA.CED.A.4Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2)
HSF-IF.C.7Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by in hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases. (HS-PS2-1)
HSS-IS.A.1Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots). (HS-PS2-1)

HS-PS2Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-PS2-1.Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration. [Clarification Statement: Examples of data could include tables or graphs of position or velocity as a function of time for objects subject to a net unbalanced force, such as a falling object, an object rolling down a ramp, or a moving object being pulled by a constant force.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to one-dimensional motion and to macroscopic objects moving at non-relativistic speeds.]
HS-PS2-2. Use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the quantitative conservation of momentum in interactions and the qualitative meaning of this principle.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to systems of two macroscopic bodies moving in one dimension.]
HS-PS2-3. Apply scientific and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of evaluation and refinement could include determining the success of the device at protecting an object from damage and modifying the design to improve it. Examples of a device could include a football helmet or a parachute.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to qualitative evaluations and/or algebraic manipulations.]
HS-PS2-4. Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both quantitative and conceptual descriptions of gravitational and electric fields.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to systems with two objects.]
HS-PS2-5. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that an electric current can produce a magnetic field and that a changing magnetic field can produce an electric current. [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to designing and conducting investigations with provided materials and tools.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical and empirical models.

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.

Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking at the 9–12 level builds on K–8 and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

  • Theories and laws provide explanations in science. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-4)
  • Laws are statements or descriptions of the relationships among observable phenomena. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-4)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS2.A: Forces and Motion

PS2.B: Types of Interactions

PS3.A: Definitions of Energy

ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting an Engineering Problem

ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Cause and Effect

Systems and System Models

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-level:

HS.PS3.A (HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5); HS.PS3.C (HS-PS2-1); HS.PS4.B (HS-PS2-5); HS.ESS1.A (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-4); HS.ESS1.B (HS-PS2-4); HS.ESS1.C (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-4); HS.ESS2.A (HS-PS2-5); HS.ESS2.C (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-4); HS.ESS3.A (HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS2.A (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-3); MS.PS2.B (HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5); MS.PS3.C (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-3); MS.ESS1.B (HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-PS2-1)
RST.11-12.7 Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (HS-PS2-1)
WHST.11-12.7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HS-PS2-3),(HS-PS2-5)
WHST.11-12.8 Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. (HS-PS2-5)
WHST.11-12.9 Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-5)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-4)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5)
HSN.Q.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5)
HSN.Q.A.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5)
HSA.SSE.A.1Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-4)
HSA.SSE.B.3Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-4)
HSA.CED.A.1Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2)
HSA.CED.A.2Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2)
HSA.CED.A.4Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2)
HSF-IF.C.7Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by in hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases. (HS-PS2-1)
HSS-IS.A.1Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots). (HS-PS2-1)

* The performance expectations marked with an asterisk integrate traditional science content with engineering through a Practice or Disciplinary Core Idea.

The section entitled “Disciplinary Core Ideas” is reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Integrated and reprinted with permission from the National Academy of Sciences.