HS-PS2   Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-PS2-1. Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration. [Clarification Statement: Examples of data could include tables or graphs of position or velocity as a function of time for objects subject to a net unbalanced force, such as a falling object, an object sliding down a ramp, or a moving object being pulled by a constant force.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to one-dimensional motion and to macroscopic objects moving at non-relativistic speeds.] Use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the quantitative conservation of momentum in interactions and the qualitative meaning of this principle.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to systems of two macroscopic bodies moving in one dimension.] Apply science and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of evaluation and refinement could include determining the success of the device at protecting an object from damage and modifying the design to improve it. Examples of a device could include a football helmet or a parachute.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to qualitative evaluations and/or algebraic manipulations.] Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both quantitative and conceptual descriptions of gravitational and electric fields.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to systems with two objects.] Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that an electric current can produce a magnetic field and that a changing magnetic field can produce an electric current. [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to designing and conducting investigations with provided materials and tools.] Communicate scientific and technical information about why the molecular-level structure is important in the functioning of designed materials.* [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the attractive and repulsive forces that determine the functioning of the material. Examples could include why electrically conductive materials are often made of metal, flexible but durable materials are made up of long chained molecules, and pharmaceuticals are designed to interact with specific receptors.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to provided molecular structures of specific designed materials.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

## Science and Engineering Practices

### Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical and empirical models.

### Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.

### Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking at the 9–12 level builds on K–8 and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

### Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

### Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods, and designs.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

### Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

• Theories and laws provide explanations in science. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-4)
• Laws are statements or descriptions of the relationships among observable phenomena. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-4)

## Crosscutting Concepts

### Structure and Function

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-level:

HS.PS3.A (HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5); HS.PS3.C (HS-PS2-1); HS.PS4.B (HS-PS2-5); HS.ESS1.A (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-4); HS.ESS1.B (HS-PS2-4); HS.ESS1.C (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-4);HS.ESS2.A (HS-PS2-5); HS.ESS2.C (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-4); HS.ESS3.A (HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5)

MS.PS1.A (HS-PS2-6); MS.PS2.A (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-3); MS.PS2.B (HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5),(HS-PS2-6); MS.PS3.C (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-3); MS.ESS1.B (HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

HS-PS2Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-PS2-1. Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration. [Clarification Statement: Examples of data could include tables or graphs of position or velocity as a function of time for objects subject to a net unbalanced force, such as a falling object, an object sliding down a ramp, or a moving object being pulled by a constant force.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to one-dimensional motion and to macroscopic objects moving at non-relativistic speeds.] Use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the quantitative conservation of momentum in interactions and the qualitative meaning of this principle.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to systems of two macroscopic bodies moving in one dimension.] Apply science and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of evaluation and refinement could include determining the success of the device at protecting an object from damage and modifying the design to improve it. Examples of a device could include a football helmet or a parachute.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to qualitative evaluations and/or algebraic manipulations.] Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both quantitative and conceptual descriptions of gravitational and electric fields.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to systems with two objects.] Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that an electric current can produce a magnetic field and that a changing magnetic field can produce an electric current. [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to designing and conducting investigations with provided materials and tools.] Communicate scientific and technical information about why the molecular-level structure is important in the functioning of designed materials.* [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the attractive and repulsive forces that determine the functioning of the material. Examples could include why electrically conductive materials are often made of metal, flexible but durable materials are made up of long chained molecules, and pharmaceuticals are designed to interact with specific receptors.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to provided molecular structures of specific designed materials.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

## Science and Engineering Practices

### Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical and empirical models.

### Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.

### Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking at the 9–12 level builds on K–8 and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

### Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

### Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods, and designs.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

### Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

• Theories and laws provide explanations in science. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-4)
• Laws are statements or descriptions of the relationships among observable phenomena. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-4)

## Crosscutting Concepts

### Structure and Function

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-level:

HS.PS3.A (HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5); HS.PS3.C (HS-PS2-1); HS.PS4.B (HS-PS2-5); HS.ESS1.A (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-4); HS.ESS1.B (HS-PS2-4); HS.ESS1.C (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-4);HS.ESS2.A (HS-PS2-5); HS.ESS2.C (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-4); HS.ESS3.A (HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5)

MS.PS1.A (HS-PS2-6); MS.PS2.A (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-3); MS.PS2.B (HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5),(HS-PS2-6); MS.PS3.C (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-3); MS.ESS1.B (HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

HS-PS2Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-PS2-1. Analyze data to support the claim that Newton’s second law of motion describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration. [Clarification Statement: Examples of data could include tables or graphs of position or velocity as a function of time for objects subject to a net unbalanced force, such as a falling object, an object sliding down a ramp, or a moving object being pulled by a constant force.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to one-dimensional motion and to macroscopic objects moving at non-relativistic speeds.] Use mathematical representations to support the claim that the total momentum of a system of objects is conserved when there is no net force on the system. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the quantitative conservation of momentum in interactions and the qualitative meaning of this principle.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to systems of two macroscopic bodies moving in one dimension.] Apply science and engineering ideas to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of evaluation and refinement could include determining the success of the device at protecting an object from damage and modifying the design to improve it. Examples of a device could include a football helmet or a parachute.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to qualitative evaluations and/or algebraic manipulations.] Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both quantitative and conceptual descriptions of gravitational and electric fields.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to systems with two objects.] Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that an electric current can produce a magnetic field and that a changing magnetic field can produce an electric current. [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to designing and conducting investigations with provided materials and tools.] Communicate scientific and technical information about why the molecular-level structure is important in the functioning of designed materials.* [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the attractive and repulsive forces that determine the functioning of the material. Examples could include why electrically conductive materials are often made of metal, flexible but durable materials are made up of long chained molecules, and pharmaceuticals are designed to interact with specific receptors.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to provided molecular structures of specific designed materials.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

## Science and Engineering Practices

### Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical and empirical models.

### Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.

### Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking at the 9–12 level builds on K–8 and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

### Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

### Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods, and designs.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

### Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

• Theories and laws provide explanations in science. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-4)
• Laws are statements or descriptions of the relationships among observable phenomena. (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-4)

## Crosscutting Concepts

### Structure and Function

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-level:

HS.PS3.A (HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5); HS.PS3.C (HS-PS2-1); HS.PS4.B (HS-PS2-5); HS.ESS1.A (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-4); HS.ESS1.B (HS-PS2-4); HS.ESS1.C (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-4);HS.ESS2.A (HS-PS2-5); HS.ESS2.C (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-4); HS.ESS3.A (HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5)

MS.PS1.A (HS-PS2-6); MS.PS2.A (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-3); MS.PS2.B (HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5),(HS-PS2-6); MS.PS3.C (HS-PS2-1),(HS-PS2-2),(HS-PS2-3); MS.ESS1.B (HS-PS2-4),(HS-PS2-5)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

* The performance expectations marked with an asterisk integrate traditional science content with engineering through a Practice or Disciplinary Core Idea.

The section entitled “Disciplinary Core Ideas” is reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Integrated and reprinted with permission from the National Academy of Sciences.

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## How to Read the Standards

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