MS-PS2-2   Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-PS2-2. Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on balanced (Newton’s First Law) and unbalanced forces in a system, qualitative comparisons of forces, mass and changes in motion (Newton’s Second Law), frame of reference, and specification of units.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to forces and changes in motion in one-dimension in an inertial reference frame and to change in one variable at a time. Assessment does not include the use of trigonometry.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

## Science and Engineering Practices

### Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include investigations that use multiple variables and provide evidence to support explanations or design solutions.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

### Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence

• Science knowledge is based upon logical and conceptual connections between evidence and explanations.

## Crosscutting Concepts

### Stability and Change

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

Common Core State Standards Connections:

MS-PS2-2   Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-PS2-2. Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on balanced (Newton’s First Law) and unbalanced forces in a system, qualitative comparisons of forces, mass and changes in motion (Newton’s Second Law), frame of reference, and specification of units.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to forces and changes in motion in one-dimension in an inertial reference frame and to change in one variable at a time. Assessment does not include the use of trigonometry.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

## Science and Engineering Practices

### Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include investigations that use multiple variables and provide evidence to support explanations or design solutions.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

### Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence

• Science knowledge is based upon logical and conceptual connections between evidence and explanations.

## Crosscutting Concepts

### Stability and Change

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

Common Core State Standards Connections:

MS-PS2-2   Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-PS2-2. Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on balanced (Newton’s First Law) and unbalanced forces in a system, qualitative comparisons of forces, mass and changes in motion (Newton’s Second Law), frame of reference, and specification of units.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to forces and changes in motion in one-dimension in an inertial reference frame and to change in one variable at a time. Assessment does not include the use of trigonometry.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

## Science and Engineering Practices

### Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include investigations that use multiple variables and provide evidence to support explanations or design solutions.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

### Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence

• Science knowledge is based upon logical and conceptual connections between evidence and explanations.

## Crosscutting Concepts

### Stability and Change

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

Common Core State Standards Connections:

* The performance expectations marked with an asterisk integrate traditional science content with engineering through a Practice or Disciplinary Core Idea.

The section entitled “Disciplinary Core Ideas” is reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Integrated and reprinted with permission from the National Academy of Sciences.

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## How to Read the Standards

The standards integrate three dimensions within each standard and have intentional connections across standards. More...