HS.History of Earth

HS-ESS1 Earth's Place in the Universe

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-ESS1-5. Evaluate evidence of the past and current movements of continental and oceanic crust and the theory of plate tectonics to explain the ages of crustal rocks. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the ability of plate tectonics to explain the ages of crustal rocks. Examples include evidence of the ages oceanic crust increasing with distance from mid-ocean ridges (a result of plate spreading) and the ages of North American continental crust decreasing with distance away from a central ancient core (a result of past plate interactions).]
HS-ESS1-6. Apply scientific reasoning and evidence from ancient Earth materials, meteorites, and other planetary surfaces to construct an account of Earth’s formation and early history. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using available evidence within the solar system to reconstruct the early history of Earth, which formed along with the rest of the solar system 4.6 billion years ago. Examples of evidence include the absolute ages of ancient materials (obtained by radiometric dating of meteorites, moon rocks, and Earth’s oldest minerals), the sizes and compositions of solar system objects, and the impact cratering record of planetary surfaces.]
HS-ESS2-1. Develop a model to illustrate how Earth’s internal and surface processes operate at different spatial and temporal scales to form continental and ocean-floor features. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how the appearance of land features (such as mountains, valleys, and plateaus) and sea-floor features (such as trenches, ridges, and seamounts) are a result of both constructive forces (such as volcanism, tectonic uplift, and orogeny) and destructive mechanisms (such as weathering, mass wasting, and coastal erosion).] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include memorization of the details of the formation of specific geographic features of Earth’s surface.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed world(s).

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using appropriate and sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims and explanations about the natural and designed world(s). Arguments may also come from current scientific or historical episodes in science.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

  • A scientific theory is a substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment and the science community validates each theory before it is accepted. If new evidence is discovered that the theory does not accommodate, the theory is generally modified in light of this new evidence. (HS-ESS1-6)
  • Models, mechanisms, and explanations collectively serve as tools in the development of a scientific theory. (HS-ESS1-6)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

ESS1.C: The History of Planet Earth

ESS2.A: Earth Materials and Systems

ESS2.B: Plate Tectonics and Large-Scale System Interactions

PS1.C: Nuclear Processes

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Stability and Change

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS2.A (HS-ESS1-6); HS.PS2.B (HS-ESS1-6),(HS-ESS2-1); HS.PS3.B (HS-ESS1-5); HS.ESS2.A (HS-ESS1-5)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS2.B (HS-ESS1-6),(HS-ESS2-1); MS.LS2.B (HS-ESS2-1); MS.ESS1.B (HS-ESS1-6); MS.ESS1.C (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6),(HS-ESS2-1); MS.ESS2.A (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6),(HS-ESS2-1); MS.ESS2.B (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6),(HS-ESS2-1); MS.ESS2.C (HS-ESS2-1); MS.ESS2.D (HS-ESS1-1)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6)
RST.11-12.8Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6)
WHST.9-12.1Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content. (HS-ESS1-6)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-5)
SL.11-12.5Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-ESS2-1)
Mathematics -
MP.2Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6),(HS-ESS2-1)
MP.4Model with mathematics. (HS-ESS2-1)
HSN-Q.A.1Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6),(HS-ESS2-1)
HSN-Q.A.2Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6),(HS-ESS2-1)
HSN-Q.A.3Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6),(HS-ESS2-1)
HSF-IF.B.5Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes. (HS-ESS1-6)
HSS-ID.B.6Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how those variables are related. (HS-ESS1-6)

HS-ESS1 Earth's Place in the Universe

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-ESS1-5. Evaluate evidence of the past and current movements of continental and oceanic crust and the theory of plate tectonics to explain the ages of crustal rocks. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the ability of plate tectonics to explain the ages of crustal rocks. Examples include evidence of the ages oceanic crust increasing with distance from mid-ocean ridges (a result of plate spreading) and the ages of North American continental crust decreasing with distance away from a central ancient core (a result of past plate interactions).]
HS-ESS1-6. Apply scientific reasoning and evidence from ancient Earth materials, meteorites, and other planetary surfaces to construct an account of Earth’s formation and early history. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using available evidence within the solar system to reconstruct the early history of Earth, which formed along with the rest of the solar system 4.6 billion years ago. Examples of evidence include the absolute ages of ancient materials (obtained by radiometric dating of meteorites, moon rocks, and Earth’s oldest minerals), the sizes and compositions of solar system objects, and the impact cratering record of planetary surfaces.]
HS-ESS2-1. Develop a model to illustrate how Earth’s internal and surface processes operate at different spatial and temporal scales to form continental and ocean-floor features. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how the appearance of land features (such as mountains, valleys, and plateaus) and sea-floor features (such as trenches, ridges, and seamounts) are a result of both constructive forces (such as volcanism, tectonic uplift, and orogeny) and destructive mechanisms (such as weathering, mass wasting, and coastal erosion).] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include memorization of the details of the formation of specific geographic features of Earth’s surface.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed world(s).

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using appropriate and sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims and explanations about the natural and designed world(s). Arguments may also come from current scientific or historical episodes in science.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

  • A scientific theory is a substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment and the science community validates each theory before it is accepted. If new evidence is discovered that the theory does not accommodate, the theory is generally modified in light of this new evidence. (HS-ESS1-6)
  • Models, mechanisms, and explanations collectively serve as tools in the development of a scientific theory. (HS-ESS1-6)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

ESS1.C: The History of Planet Earth

ESS2.A: Earth Materials and Systems

ESS2.B: Plate Tectonics and Large-Scale System Interactions

PS1.C: Nuclear Processes

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Stability and Change

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS2.A (HS-ESS1-6); HS.PS2.B (HS-ESS1-6),(HS-ESS2-1); HS.PS3.B (HS-ESS1-5); HS.ESS2.A (HS-ESS1-5)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS2.B (HS-ESS1-6),(HS-ESS2-1); MS.LS2.B (HS-ESS2-1); MS.ESS1.B (HS-ESS1-6); MS.ESS1.C (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6),(HS-ESS2-1); MS.ESS2.A (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6),(HS-ESS2-1); MS.ESS2.B (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6),(HS-ESS2-1); MS.ESS2.C (HS-ESS2-1); MS.ESS2.D (HS-ESS1-1)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6)
RST.11-12.8Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6)
WHST.9-12.1Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content. (HS-ESS1-6)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-5)
SL.11-12.5Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-ESS2-1)
Mathematics -
MP.2Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6),(HS-ESS2-1)
MP.4Model with mathematics. (HS-ESS2-1)
HSN-Q.A.1Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6),(HS-ESS2-1)
HSN-Q.A.2Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6),(HS-ESS2-1)
HSN-Q.A.3Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6),(HS-ESS2-1)
HSF-IF.B.5Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes. (HS-ESS1-6)
HSS-ID.B.6Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how those variables are related. (HS-ESS1-6)

HS-ESS1 Earth's Place in the Universe

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-ESS1-5. Evaluate evidence of the past and current movements of continental and oceanic crust and the theory of plate tectonics to explain the ages of crustal rocks. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the ability of plate tectonics to explain the ages of crustal rocks. Examples include evidence of the ages oceanic crust increasing with distance from mid-ocean ridges (a result of plate spreading) and the ages of North American continental crust decreasing with distance away from a central ancient core (a result of past plate interactions).]
HS-ESS1-6. Apply scientific reasoning and evidence from ancient Earth materials, meteorites, and other planetary surfaces to construct an account of Earth’s formation and early history. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using available evidence within the solar system to reconstruct the early history of Earth, which formed along with the rest of the solar system 4.6 billion years ago. Examples of evidence include the absolute ages of ancient materials (obtained by radiometric dating of meteorites, moon rocks, and Earth’s oldest minerals), the sizes and compositions of solar system objects, and the impact cratering record of planetary surfaces.]
HS-ESS2-1. Develop a model to illustrate how Earth’s internal and surface processes operate at different spatial and temporal scales to form continental and ocean-floor features. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how the appearance of land features (such as mountains, valleys, and plateaus) and sea-floor features (such as trenches, ridges, and seamounts) are a result of both constructive forces (such as volcanism, tectonic uplift, and orogeny) and destructive mechanisms (such as weathering, mass wasting, and coastal erosion).] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include memorization of the details of the formation of specific geographic features of Earth’s surface.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed world(s).

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using appropriate and sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims and explanations about the natural and designed world(s). Arguments may also come from current scientific or historical episodes in science.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

  • A scientific theory is a substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment and the science community validates each theory before it is accepted. If new evidence is discovered that the theory does not accommodate, the theory is generally modified in light of this new evidence. (HS-ESS1-6)
  • Models, mechanisms, and explanations collectively serve as tools in the development of a scientific theory. (HS-ESS1-6)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

ESS1.C: The History of Planet Earth

ESS2.A: Earth Materials and Systems

ESS2.B: Plate Tectonics and Large-Scale System Interactions

PS1.C: Nuclear Processes

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Stability and Change

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS2.A (HS-ESS1-6); HS.PS2.B (HS-ESS1-6),(HS-ESS2-1); HS.PS3.B (HS-ESS1-5); HS.ESS2.A (HS-ESS1-5)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS2.B (HS-ESS1-6),(HS-ESS2-1); MS.LS2.B (HS-ESS2-1); MS.ESS1.B (HS-ESS1-6); MS.ESS1.C (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6),(HS-ESS2-1); MS.ESS2.A (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6),(HS-ESS2-1); MS.ESS2.B (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6),(HS-ESS2-1); MS.ESS2.C (HS-ESS2-1); MS.ESS2.D (HS-ESS1-1)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6)
RST.11-12.8Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6)
WHST.9-12.1Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content. (HS-ESS1-6)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-5)
SL.11-12.5Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-ESS2-1)
Mathematics -
MP.2Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6),(HS-ESS2-1)
MP.4Model with mathematics. (HS-ESS2-1)
HSN-Q.A.1Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6),(HS-ESS2-1)
HSN-Q.A.2Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6),(HS-ESS2-1)
HSN-Q.A.3Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-ESS1-5),(HS-ESS1-6),(HS-ESS2-1)
HSF-IF.B.5Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes. (HS-ESS1-6)
HSS-ID.B.6Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how those variables are related. (HS-ESS1-6)

* The performance expectations marked with an asterisk integrate traditional science content with engineering through a Practice or Disciplinary Core Idea.

The section entitled “Disciplinary Core Ideas” is reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Integrated and reprinted with permission from the National Academy of Sciences.