HS.Natural Selection and Evolution

HS-LS4 Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS4-1. Communicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on a conceptual understanding of the role each line of evidence has relating to common ancestry and biological evolution. Examples of evidence could include similarities in DNA sequences, anatomical structures, and order of appearance of structures in embryological development.]
HS-LS4-2. Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily results from four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using evidence to explain the influence each of the four factors has on number of organisms, behaviors, morphology, or physiology in terms of ability to compete for limited resources and subsequent survival of individuals and adaptation of species. Examples of evidence could include mathematical models such as simple distribution graphs and proportional reasoning.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include other mechanisms of evolution, such as genetic drift, gene flow through migration, and co-evolution.]
HS-LS4-3. Apply concepts of statistics and probability to support explanations that organisms with an advantageous heritable trait tend to increase in proportion to organisms lacking this trait. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on analyzing shifts in numerical distribution of traits and using these shifts as evidence to support explanations.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to basic statistical and graphical analysis. Assessment does not include allele frequency calculations.]
HS-LS4-4. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how natural selection leads to adaptation of populations. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using data to provide evidence for how specific biotic and abiotic differences in ecosystems (such as ranges of seasonal temperature, long-term climate change, acidity, light, geographic barriers, or evolution of other organisms) contribute to a change in gene frequency over time, leading to adaptation of populations.]
HS-LS4-5. Evaluate the evidence supporting claims that changes in environmental conditions may result in: (1) increases in the number of individuals of some species, (2) the emergence of new species over time, and (3) the extinction of other species. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on determining cause and effect relationships for how changes to the environment such as deforestation, fishing, application of fertilizers, drought, flood, and the rate of change of the environment affect distribution or disappearance of traits in species.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using appropriate and sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims and explanations about the natural and designed world(s). Arguments may also come from current or historical episodes in science.

  • Evaluate the evidence behind currently accepted explanations or solutions to determine the merits of arguments. (HS-LS4-5)

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods, and designs.

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

           Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

  • A scientific theory is a substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment and the science community validates each theory before it is accepted. If new evidence is discovered that the theory does not accommodate, the theory is generally modified in light of this new evidence. (HS-LS4-1)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS4.A: Evidence of Common Ancestry and Diversity

LS4.B: Natural Selection

LS4.C: Adaptation

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Cause and Effect

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

           Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems

  • Scientific knowledge is based on the assumption that natural laws operate today as they did in the past and they will continue to do so in the future. (HS-LS4-1),(HS-LS4-4)

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.LS2.A (HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-4),(HS-LS4-5); HS.LS2.D (HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-4),(HS-LS4-5); HS.LS3.A (HS-LS4-1); HS.LS3.B (HS-LS4-1),(HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-5); HS.ESS1.C (HS-LS4-1); HS.ESS2.E (HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-5); HS.ESS3.A (HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-5); HS.ESS3.C

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.A (HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-5); MS.LS2.C (HS-LS4-5); LS3.A (HS-LS4-1); LS3.B (HS-LS4-1),(HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3); MS.LS4.A (HS-LS4-1); MS.LS4.B (HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-4); MS.LS4.C (HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-4),(HS-LS4-5); MS.ESS1.C (HS-LS4-1); HS.ESS3.C (HS-LS4-5)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST-11.12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS4-1),(HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-4)
RST-11.12.8 Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-LS4-5)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS4-1),(HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-4)
WHST.9-12.9Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-LS4-1),(HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-4),(HS-LS4-5)
SL.11-12.4Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. (HS-LS4-1),(HS-LS4-2)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS4-1),(HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-4),(HS-LS4-5)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-LS4-2)

HS-LS4 Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS4-1. Communicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on a conceptual understanding of the role each line of evidence has relating to common ancestry and biological evolution. Examples of evidence could include similarities in DNA sequences, anatomical structures, and order of appearance of structures in embryological development.]
HS-LS4-2. Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily results from four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using evidence to explain the influence each of the four factors has on number of organisms, behaviors, morphology, or physiology in terms of ability to compete for limited resources and subsequent survival of individuals and adaptation of species. Examples of evidence could include mathematical models such as simple distribution graphs and proportional reasoning.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include other mechanisms of evolution, such as genetic drift, gene flow through migration, and co-evolution.]
HS-LS4-3. Apply concepts of statistics and probability to support explanations that organisms with an advantageous heritable trait tend to increase in proportion to organisms lacking this trait. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on analyzing shifts in numerical distribution of traits and using these shifts as evidence to support explanations.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to basic statistical and graphical analysis. Assessment does not include allele frequency calculations.]
HS-LS4-4. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how natural selection leads to adaptation of populations. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using data to provide evidence for how specific biotic and abiotic differences in ecosystems (such as ranges of seasonal temperature, long-term climate change, acidity, light, geographic barriers, or evolution of other organisms) contribute to a change in gene frequency over time, leading to adaptation of populations.]
HS-LS4-5. Evaluate the evidence supporting claims that changes in environmental conditions may result in: (1) increases in the number of individuals of some species, (2) the emergence of new species over time, and (3) the extinction of other species. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on determining cause and effect relationships for how changes to the environment such as deforestation, fishing, application of fertilizers, drought, flood, and the rate of change of the environment affect distribution or disappearance of traits in species.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using appropriate and sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims and explanations about the natural and designed world(s). Arguments may also come from current or historical episodes in science.

  • Evaluate the evidence behind currently accepted explanations or solutions to determine the merits of arguments. (HS-LS4-5)

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods, and designs.

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

           Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

  • A scientific theory is a substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment and the science community validates each theory before it is accepted. If new evidence is discovered that the theory does not accommodate, the theory is generally modified in light of this new evidence. (HS-LS4-1)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS4.A: Evidence of Common Ancestry and Diversity

LS4.B: Natural Selection

LS4.C: Adaptation

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Cause and Effect

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

           Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems

  • Scientific knowledge is based on the assumption that natural laws operate today as they did in the past and they will continue to do so in the future. (HS-LS4-1),(HS-LS4-4)

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.LS2.A (HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-4),(HS-LS4-5); HS.LS2.D (HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-4),(HS-LS4-5); HS.LS3.A (HS-LS4-1); HS.LS3.B (HS-LS4-1),(HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-5); HS.ESS1.C (HS-LS4-1); HS.ESS2.E (HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-5); HS.ESS3.A (HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-5); HS.ESS3.C

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.A (HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-5); MS.LS2.C (HS-LS4-5); LS3.A (HS-LS4-1); LS3.B (HS-LS4-1),(HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3); MS.LS4.A (HS-LS4-1); MS.LS4.B (HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-4); MS.LS4.C (HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-4),(HS-LS4-5); MS.ESS1.C (HS-LS4-1); HS.ESS3.C (HS-LS4-5)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST-11.12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS4-1),(HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-4)
RST-11.12.8 Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-LS4-5)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS4-1),(HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-4)
WHST.9-12.9Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-LS4-1),(HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-4),(HS-LS4-5)
SL.11-12.4Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. (HS-LS4-1),(HS-LS4-2)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS4-1),(HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-4),(HS-LS4-5)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-LS4-2)

HS-LS4 Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS4-1. Communicate scientific information that common ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple lines of empirical evidence. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on a conceptual understanding of the role each line of evidence has relating to common ancestry and biological evolution. Examples of evidence could include similarities in DNA sequences, anatomical structures, and order of appearance of structures in embryological development.]
HS-LS4-2. Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily results from four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using evidence to explain the influence each of the four factors has on number of organisms, behaviors, morphology, or physiology in terms of ability to compete for limited resources and subsequent survival of individuals and adaptation of species. Examples of evidence could include mathematical models such as simple distribution graphs and proportional reasoning.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include other mechanisms of evolution, such as genetic drift, gene flow through migration, and co-evolution.]
HS-LS4-3. Apply concepts of statistics and probability to support explanations that organisms with an advantageous heritable trait tend to increase in proportion to organisms lacking this trait. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on analyzing shifts in numerical distribution of traits and using these shifts as evidence to support explanations.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to basic statistical and graphical analysis. Assessment does not include allele frequency calculations.]
HS-LS4-4. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how natural selection leads to adaptation of populations. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using data to provide evidence for how specific biotic and abiotic differences in ecosystems (such as ranges of seasonal temperature, long-term climate change, acidity, light, geographic barriers, or evolution of other organisms) contribute to a change in gene frequency over time, leading to adaptation of populations.]
HS-LS4-5. Evaluate the evidence supporting claims that changes in environmental conditions may result in: (1) increases in the number of individuals of some species, (2) the emergence of new species over time, and (3) the extinction of other species. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on determining cause and effect relationships for how changes to the environment such as deforestation, fishing, application of fertilizers, drought, flood, and the rate of change of the environment affect distribution or disappearance of traits in species.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to using appropriate and sufficient evidence and scientific reasoning to defend and critique claims and explanations about the natural and designed world(s). Arguments may also come from current or historical episodes in science.

  • Evaluate the evidence behind currently accepted explanations or solutions to determine the merits of arguments. (HS-LS4-5)

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods, and designs.

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

           Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

  • A scientific theory is a substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment and the science community validates each theory before it is accepted. If new evidence is discovered that the theory does not accommodate, the theory is generally modified in light of this new evidence. (HS-LS4-1)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS4.A: Evidence of Common Ancestry and Diversity

LS4.B: Natural Selection

LS4.C: Adaptation

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Cause and Effect

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

           Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems

  • Scientific knowledge is based on the assumption that natural laws operate today as they did in the past and they will continue to do so in the future. (HS-LS4-1),(HS-LS4-4)

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.LS2.A (HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-4),(HS-LS4-5); HS.LS2.D (HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-4),(HS-LS4-5); HS.LS3.A (HS-LS4-1); HS.LS3.B (HS-LS4-1),(HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-5); HS.ESS1.C (HS-LS4-1); HS.ESS2.E (HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-5); HS.ESS3.A (HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-5); HS.ESS3.C

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.A (HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-5); MS.LS2.C (HS-LS4-5); LS3.A (HS-LS4-1); LS3.B (HS-LS4-1),(HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3); MS.LS4.A (HS-LS4-1); MS.LS4.B (HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-4); MS.LS4.C (HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-4),(HS-LS4-5); MS.ESS1.C (HS-LS4-1); HS.ESS3.C (HS-LS4-5)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST-11.12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS4-1),(HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-4)
RST-11.12.8 Evaluate the hypotheses, data, analysis, and conclusions in a science or technical text, verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. (HS-LS4-5)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS4-1),(HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-4)
WHST.9-12.9Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-LS4-1),(HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-4),(HS-LS4-5)
SL.11-12.4Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. (HS-LS4-1),(HS-LS4-2)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS4-1),(HS-LS4-2),(HS-LS4-3),(HS-LS4-4),(HS-LS4-5)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-LS4-2)

* The performance expectations marked with an asterisk integrate traditional science content with engineering through a Practice or Disciplinary Core Idea.

The section entitled “Disciplinary Core Ideas” is reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Integrated and reprinted with permission from the National Academy of Sciences.