HS.Structure and Properties of Matter

HS.Structure and Properties of Matter

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-PS1-1. Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms. [Clarification Statement: Examples of properties that could be predicted from patterns could include reactivity of metals, types of bonds formed, numbers of bonds formed, and reactions with oxygen.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to main group elements. Assessment does not include quantitative understanding of ionization energy beyond relative trends.]
HS-PS1-3. Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the bulk scale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on understanding the strengths of forces between particles, not on naming specific intermolecular forces (such as dipole-dipole). Examples of particles could include ions, atoms, molecules, and networked materials (such as graphite). Examples of bulk properties of substances could include the melting point and boiling point, vapor pressure, and surface tension.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include Raoult’s law calculations of vapor pressure.]
HS-PS1-8. Develop models to illustrate the changes in the composition of the nucleus of the atom and the energy released during the processes of fission, fusion, and radioactive decay. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on simple qualitative models, such as pictures or diagrams, and on the scale of energy released in nuclear processes relative to other kinds of transformations.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include quantitative calculation of energy released. Assessment is limited to alpha, beta, and gamma radioactive decays.]
HS-PS2-6. Communicate scientific and technical information about why the molecular-level structure is important in the functioning of designed materials.* [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the attractive and repulsive forces that determine the functioning of the material. Examples could include why electrically conductive materials are often made of metal, flexible but durable materials are made up of long chained molecules, and pharmaceuticals are designed to interact with specific receptors.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to provided molecular structures of specific designed materials.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical, and empirical models.

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods, and designs.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter

PS1.C: Nuclear Processes

PS2.B: Types of Interactions

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Energy and Matter

Structure and Function

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS3.A (HS-PS1-8); HS.PS3.B (HS-PS1-8); HS.PS3.C (HS-PS1-8); HS.PS3.D (HS-PS1-8); HS.LS1.C (HS-PS1-1); HS.ESS1.A (HS-PS1-8); HS.ESS1.C (HS-PS1-8); HS.ESS2.C(HS-PS1-3)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS1.A (HS-PS1-1),(HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS1-8),(HS-PS2-6); MS.PS1.B (HS-PS1-1),(HS-PS1-8); MS.PS2.B (HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS2-6); MS.ESS2.A (HS-PS1-8)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.9-10.7 Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words. (HS-PS1-1)
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS2-6)
WHST.9-12.2 Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-PS2-6)
WHST.9-12.7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HS-PS1-3)
WHST.11-12.8 Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. (HS-PS1-3)
WHST.9-12.9 Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-PS1-3)
Mathematics -
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-PS1-8)
HSN-Q.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS1-8),(HS-PS2-6)
HSN-Q.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-PS1-8),(HS-PS2-6)
HSN-Q.A.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS1-8),(HS-PS2-6)

HS.Structure and Properties of Matter

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-PS1-1. Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms. [Clarification Statement: Examples of properties that could be predicted from patterns could include reactivity of metals, types of bonds formed, numbers of bonds formed, and reactions with oxygen.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to main group elements. Assessment does not include quantitative understanding of ionization energy beyond relative trends.]
HS-PS1-3. Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the bulk scale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on understanding the strengths of forces between particles, not on naming specific intermolecular forces (such as dipole-dipole). Examples of particles could include ions, atoms, molecules, and networked materials (such as graphite). Examples of bulk properties of substances could include the melting point and boiling point, vapor pressure, and surface tension.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include Raoult’s law calculations of vapor pressure.]
HS-PS1-8. Develop models to illustrate the changes in the composition of the nucleus of the atom and the energy released during the processes of fission, fusion, and radioactive decay. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on simple qualitative models, such as pictures or diagrams, and on the scale of energy released in nuclear processes relative to other kinds of transformations.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include quantitative calculation of energy released. Assessment is limited to alpha, beta, and gamma radioactive decays.]
HS-PS2-6. Communicate scientific and technical information about why the molecular-level structure is important in the functioning of designed materials.* [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the attractive and repulsive forces that determine the functioning of the material. Examples could include why electrically conductive materials are often made of metal, flexible but durable materials are made up of long chained molecules, and pharmaceuticals are designed to interact with specific receptors.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to provided molecular structures of specific designed materials.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical, and empirical models.

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods, and designs.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter

PS1.C: Nuclear Processes

PS2.B: Types of Interactions

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Energy and Matter

Structure and Function

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS3.A (HS-PS1-8); HS.PS3.B (HS-PS1-8); HS.PS3.C (HS-PS1-8); HS.PS3.D (HS-PS1-8); HS.LS1.C (HS-PS1-1); HS.ESS1.A (HS-PS1-8); HS.ESS1.C (HS-PS1-8); HS.ESS2.C(HS-PS1-3)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS1.A (HS-PS1-1),(HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS1-8),(HS-PS2-6); MS.PS1.B (HS-PS1-1),(HS-PS1-8); MS.PS2.B (HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS2-6); MS.ESS2.A (HS-PS1-8)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.9-10.7 Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words. (HS-PS1-1)
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS2-6)
WHST.9-12.2 Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-PS2-6)
WHST.9-12.7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HS-PS1-3)
WHST.11-12.8 Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. (HS-PS1-3)
WHST.9-12.9 Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-PS1-3)
Mathematics -
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-PS1-8)
HSN-Q.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS1-8),(HS-PS2-6)
HSN-Q.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-PS1-8),(HS-PS2-6)
HSN-Q.A.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS1-8),(HS-PS2-6)

HS.Structure and Properties of Matter

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-PS1-1. Use the periodic table as a model to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms. [Clarification Statement: Examples of properties that could be predicted from patterns could include reactivity of metals, types of bonds formed, numbers of bonds formed, and reactions with oxygen.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to main group elements. Assessment does not include quantitative understanding of ionization energy beyond relative trends.]
HS-PS1-3. Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare the structure of substances at the bulk scale to infer the strength of electrical forces between particles. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on understanding the strengths of forces between particles, not on naming specific intermolecular forces (such as dipole-dipole). Examples of particles could include ions, atoms, molecules, and networked materials (such as graphite). Examples of bulk properties of substances could include the melting point and boiling point, vapor pressure, and surface tension.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include Raoult’s law calculations of vapor pressure.]
HS-PS1-8. Develop models to illustrate the changes in the composition of the nucleus of the atom and the energy released during the processes of fission, fusion, and radioactive decay. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on simple qualitative models, such as pictures or diagrams, and on the scale of energy released in nuclear processes relative to other kinds of transformations.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include quantitative calculation of energy released. Assessment is limited to alpha, beta, and gamma radioactive decays.]
HS-PS2-6. Communicate scientific and technical information about why the molecular-level structure is important in the functioning of designed materials.* [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the attractive and repulsive forces that determine the functioning of the material. Examples could include why electrically conductive materials are often made of metal, flexible but durable materials are made up of long chained molecules, and pharmaceuticals are designed to interact with specific receptors.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to provided molecular structures of specific designed materials.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed worlds.

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations in 9-12 builds on K-8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical, and empirical models.

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods, and designs.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter

PS1.C: Nuclear Processes

PS2.B: Types of Interactions

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Energy and Matter

Structure and Function

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS3.A (HS-PS1-8); HS.PS3.B (HS-PS1-8); HS.PS3.C (HS-PS1-8); HS.PS3.D (HS-PS1-8); HS.LS1.C (HS-PS1-1); HS.ESS1.A (HS-PS1-8); HS.ESS1.C (HS-PS1-8); HS.ESS2.C(HS-PS1-3)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS1.A (HS-PS1-1),(HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS1-8),(HS-PS2-6); MS.PS1.B (HS-PS1-1),(HS-PS1-8); MS.PS2.B (HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS2-6); MS.ESS2.A (HS-PS1-8)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.9-10.7 Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words. (HS-PS1-1)
RST.11-12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS2-6)
WHST.9-12.2 Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-PS2-6)
WHST.9-12.7 Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HS-PS1-3)
WHST.11-12.8 Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. (HS-PS1-3)
WHST.9-12.9 Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-PS1-3)
Mathematics -
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-PS1-8)
HSN-Q.A.1 Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS1-8),(HS-PS2-6)
HSN-Q.A.2 Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-PS1-8),(HS-PS2-6)
HSN-Q.A.3 Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-PS1-3),(HS-PS1-8),(HS-PS2-6)

* The performance expectations marked with an asterisk integrate traditional science content with engineering through a Practice or Disciplinary Core Idea.

The section entitled “Disciplinary Core Ideas” is reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Integrated and reprinted with permission from the National Academy of Sciences.