MS.Chemical Reactions

MS.   Chemical Reactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-PS1-2. Analyze and interpret data on the properties of substances before and after the substances interact to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred.  [Clarification Statement: Examples of reactions could include burning sugar or steel wool, fat reacting with sodium hydroxide, and mixing zinc with hydrogen chloride.] [Assessment boundary: Assessment is limited to analysis of the following properties: density, melting point, boiling point, solubility, flammability, and odor.]
MS-PS1-5. Develop and use a model to describe how the total number of atoms does not change in a chemical reaction and thus mass is conserved. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on law of conservation of matter and on physical models or drawings, including digital forms, that represent atoms.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the use of atomic masses, balancing symbolic equations, or intermolecular forces.]
MS-PS1-6. Undertake a design project to construct, test, and modify a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical processes.* [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the design, controlling the transfer of energy to the environment, and modification of a device using factors such as type and concentration of a substance. Examples of designs could involve chemical reactions such as dissolving ammonium chloride or calcium chloride.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to the criteria of amount, time, and temperature of substance in testing the device.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to developing, using and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems.

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to extending quantitative analysis to investigations, distinguishing between correlation and causation, and basic statistical techniques of data and error analysis.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include constructing explanations and designing solutions supported by multiple sources of evidence consistent with scientific knowledge, principles, and theories.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence

  • Science knowledge is based upon logical and conceptual connections between evidence and explanations. (MS-PS1-2)

Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

  • Laws are regularities or mathematical descriptions of natural phenomena. (MS-PS1-5)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter

PS1.B: Chemical Reactions

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Energy and Matter

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

MS.PS3.D (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-6); MS.LS1.C (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5); MS.LS2.B (MS-PS1-5); MS.ESS2.A (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

5.PS1.B (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5); HS.PS1.A (MS-PS1-6); HS.PS1.B (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5),(MS-PS1-6); HS.PS3.A (MS-PS1-6); HS.PS3.B (MS-PS1-6); HS.PS3.D (MS-PS1-6)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions.(MS-PS1-2)
RST.6-8.3 Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks. (MS-PS1-6)
RST.6-8.7Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table). (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5)
WHST.6-8.7 Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. (MS-PS1-6)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (MS-PS1-5)
6.RP.A.3Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems. (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5)
6.SP.B.4Display numerical data in plots on a number line, including dot plots, histograms, and box plots. (MS-PS1-2)
6.SP.B.5Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context. (MS-PS1-2)

MS.   Chemical Reactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-PS1-2. Analyze and interpret data on the properties of substances before and after the substances interact to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred.  [Clarification Statement: Examples of reactions could include burning sugar or steel wool, fat reacting with sodium hydroxide, and mixing zinc with hydrogen chloride.] [Assessment boundary: Assessment is limited to analysis of the following properties: density, melting point, boiling point, solubility, flammability, and odor.]
MS-PS1-5. Develop and use a model to describe how the total number of atoms does not change in a chemical reaction and thus mass is conserved. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on law of conservation of matter and on physical models or drawings, including digital forms, that represent atoms.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the use of atomic masses, balancing symbolic equations, or intermolecular forces.]
MS-PS1-6. Undertake a design project to construct, test, and modify a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical processes.* [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the design, controlling the transfer of energy to the environment, and modification of a device using factors such as type and concentration of a substance. Examples of designs could involve chemical reactions such as dissolving ammonium chloride or calcium chloride.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to the criteria of amount, time, and temperature of substance in testing the device.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to developing, using and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems.

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to extending quantitative analysis to investigations, distinguishing between correlation and causation, and basic statistical techniques of data and error analysis.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include constructing explanations and designing solutions supported by multiple sources of evidence consistent with scientific knowledge, principles, and theories.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence

  • Science knowledge is based upon logical and conceptual connections between evidence and explanations. (MS-PS1-2)

Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

  • Laws are regularities or mathematical descriptions of natural phenomena. (MS-PS1-5)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter

PS1.B: Chemical Reactions

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Energy and Matter

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

MS.PS3.D (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-6); MS.LS1.C (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5); MS.LS2.B (MS-PS1-5); MS.ESS2.A (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

5.PS1.B (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5); HS.PS1.A (MS-PS1-6); HS.PS1.B (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5),(MS-PS1-6); HS.PS3.A (MS-PS1-6); HS.PS3.B (MS-PS1-6); HS.PS3.D (MS-PS1-6)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions.(MS-PS1-2)
RST.6-8.3 Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks. (MS-PS1-6)
RST.6-8.7Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table). (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5)
WHST.6-8.7 Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. (MS-PS1-6)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (MS-PS1-5)
6.RP.A.3Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems. (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5)
6.SP.B.4Display numerical data in plots on a number line, including dot plots, histograms, and box plots. (MS-PS1-2)
6.SP.B.5Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context. (MS-PS1-2)

MS.   Chemical Reactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-PS1-2. Analyze and interpret data on the properties of substances before and after the substances interact to determine if a chemical reaction has occurred.  [Clarification Statement: Examples of reactions could include burning sugar or steel wool, fat reacting with sodium hydroxide, and mixing zinc with hydrogen chloride.] [Assessment boundary: Assessment is limited to analysis of the following properties: density, melting point, boiling point, solubility, flammability, and odor.]
MS-PS1-5. Develop and use a model to describe how the total number of atoms does not change in a chemical reaction and thus mass is conserved. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on law of conservation of matter and on physical models or drawings, including digital forms, that represent atoms.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include the use of atomic masses, balancing symbolic equations, or intermolecular forces.]
MS-PS1-6. Undertake a design project to construct, test, and modify a device that either releases or absorbs thermal energy by chemical processes.* [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the design, controlling the transfer of energy to the environment, and modification of a device using factors such as type and concentration of a substance. Examples of designs could involve chemical reactions such as dissolving ammonium chloride or calcium chloride.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to the criteria of amount, time, and temperature of substance in testing the device.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to developing, using and revising models to describe, test, and predict more abstract phenomena and design systems.

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 6–8 builds on K–5 and progresses to extending quantitative analysis to investigations, distinguishing between correlation and causation, and basic statistical techniques of data and error analysis.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include constructing explanations and designing solutions supported by multiple sources of evidence consistent with scientific knowledge, principles, and theories.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence

  • Science knowledge is based upon logical and conceptual connections between evidence and explanations. (MS-PS1-2)

Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

  • Laws are regularities or mathematical descriptions of natural phenomena. (MS-PS1-5)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS1.A: Structure and Properties of Matter

PS1.B: Chemical Reactions

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions

ETS1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution

Crosscutting Concepts

Patterns

Energy and Matter

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

MS.PS3.D (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-6); MS.LS1.C (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5); MS.LS2.B (MS-PS1-5); MS.ESS2.A (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

5.PS1.B (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5); HS.PS1.A (MS-PS1-6); HS.PS1.B (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5),(MS-PS1-6); HS.PS3.A (MS-PS1-6); HS.PS3.B (MS-PS1-6); HS.PS3.D (MS-PS1-6)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.6-8.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions.(MS-PS1-2)
RST.6-8.3 Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks. (MS-PS1-6)
RST.6-8.7Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table). (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5)
WHST.6-8.7 Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. (MS-PS1-6)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (MS-PS1-5)
6.RP.A.3Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems. (MS-PS1-2),(MS-PS1-5)
6.SP.B.4Display numerical data in plots on a number line, including dot plots, histograms, and box plots. (MS-PS1-2)
6.SP.B.5Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context. (MS-PS1-2)

* The performance expectations marked with an asterisk integrate traditional science content with engineering through a Practice or Disciplinary Core Idea.

The section entitled “Disciplinary Core Ideas” is reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Integrated and reprinted with permission from the National Academy of Sciences.