HS.Space Systems

HS-ESS1 Earth's Place in the Universe

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-ESS1-1. Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the life span of the sun and the role of nuclear fusion in the sun’s core to release energy that eventually reaches Earth in the form of radiation. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the energy transfer mechanisms that allow energy from nuclear fusion in the sun’s core to reach Earth. Examples of evidence for the model include observations of the masses and lifetimes of other stars, as well as the ways that the sun’s radiation varies due to sudden solar flares (“space weather”), the 11-year sunspot cycle, and non-cyclic variations over centuries.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include details of the atomic and sub-atomic processes involved with the sun’s nuclear fusion.]
HS-ESS1-2. Construct an explanation of the Big Bang theory based on astronomical evidence of light spectra, motion of distant galaxies, and composition of matter in the universe. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the astronomical evidence of the red shift of light from galaxies as an indication that the universe is currently expanding, the cosmic microwave background as the remnant radiation from the Big Bang, and the observed composition of ordinary matter of the universe, primarily found in stars and interstellar gases (from the spectra of electromagnetic radiation from stars), which matches that predicted by the Big Bang theory (3/4 hydrogen and 1/4 helium).]
HS-ESS1-3. Communicate scientific ideas about the way stars, over their life cycle, produce elements. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the way nucleosynthesis, and therefore the different elements created, varies as a function of the mass of a star and the stage of its lifetime.] [Assessment Boundary: Details of the many different nucleosynthesis pathways for stars of differing masses are not assessed.]
HS-ESS1-4. Use mathematical or computational representations to predict the motion of orbiting objects in the solar system. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on Newtonian gravitational laws governing orbital motions, which apply to human-made satellites as well as planets and moons.] [Assessment Boundary: Mathematical representations for the gravitational attraction of bodies and Kepler’s Laws of orbital motions should not deal with more than two bodies, nor involve calculus.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed world(s).

Using Mathematical and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods, and designs.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

  • A scientific theory is a substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment and the science community validates each theory before it is accepted. If new evidence is discovered that the theory does not accommodate, the theory is generally modified in light of this new evidence. (HS-ESS1-2)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

ESS1.A: The Universe and Its Stars

ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System

PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life

PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation

Crosscutting Concepts

Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

Energy and Matter

  • Energy cannot be created or destroyed–only moved between one place and another place, between objects and/or fields, or between systems. (HS-ESS1-2)
  • In nuclear processes, atoms are not conserved, but the total number of protons plus neutrons is conserved. (HS-ESS1-3)

 

   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

        Connections to Engineering,Technology,

                     and Applications of Science

 

Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems

  • Scientific knowledge is based on the assumption that natural laws operate today as they did in the past and they will continue to do so in the future. (HS-ESS1-2)
  • Science assumes the universe is a vast single system in which basic laws are consistent. (HS-ESS1-2)

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS1.A (HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3); HS.PS1.C (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3); HS.PS2.B (HS-ESS1-4); HS.PS3.A (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2); HS.PS3.B (HS-ESS1-2); HS.PS4.A (HS-ESS1-2)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS1.A (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3); MS.PS2.A (HS-ESS1-4); MS.PS2.B (HS-ESS1-4); MS.PS4.B (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2); MS.ESS1.A (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3),(HS-ESS1-4); MS.ESS1.B (HS-ESS1-4); MS.ESS2.A (HS-ESS1-1); MS.ESS2.D (HS-ESS1-1)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3)
SL.11-12.4Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. (HS-ESS1-3)
Mathematics -
MP.2Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3),(HS-ESS1-4)
MP.4Model with mathematics. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-4)
HSN-Q.A.1Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4)
HSN-Q.A.2Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4)
HSN-Q.A.3Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4)
HSA-SSE.A.1Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4)
HSA-CED.A.2Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4)
HSA-CED.A.4Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4)

HS-ESS1 Earth's Place in the Universe

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-ESS1-1. Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the life span of the sun and the role of nuclear fusion in the sun’s core to release energy that eventually reaches Earth in the form of radiation. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the energy transfer mechanisms that allow energy from nuclear fusion in the sun’s core to reach Earth. Examples of evidence for the model include observations of the masses and lifetimes of other stars, as well as the ways that the sun’s radiation varies due to sudden solar flares (“space weather”), the 11-year sunspot cycle, and non-cyclic variations over centuries.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include details of the atomic and sub-atomic processes involved with the sun’s nuclear fusion.]
HS-ESS1-2. Construct an explanation of the Big Bang theory based on astronomical evidence of light spectra, motion of distant galaxies, and composition of matter in the universe. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the astronomical evidence of the red shift of light from galaxies as an indication that the universe is currently expanding, the cosmic microwave background as the remnant radiation from the Big Bang, and the observed composition of ordinary matter of the universe, primarily found in stars and interstellar gases (from the spectra of electromagnetic radiation from stars), which matches that predicted by the Big Bang theory (3/4 hydrogen and 1/4 helium).]
HS-ESS1-3. Communicate scientific ideas about the way stars, over their life cycle, produce elements. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the way nucleosynthesis, and therefore the different elements created, varies as a function of the mass of a star and the stage of its lifetime.] [Assessment Boundary: Details of the many different nucleosynthesis pathways for stars of differing masses are not assessed.]
HS-ESS1-4. Use mathematical or computational representations to predict the motion of orbiting objects in the solar system. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on Newtonian gravitational laws governing orbital motions, which apply to human-made satellites as well as planets and moons.] [Assessment Boundary: Mathematical representations for the gravitational attraction of bodies and Kepler’s Laws of orbital motions should not deal with more than two bodies, nor involve calculus.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed world(s).

Using Mathematical and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods, and designs.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

  • A scientific theory is a substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment and the science community validates each theory before it is accepted. If new evidence is discovered that the theory does not accommodate, the theory is generally modified in light of this new evidence. (HS-ESS1-2)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

ESS1.A: The Universe and Its Stars

ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System

PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life

PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation

Crosscutting Concepts

Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

Energy and Matter

  • Energy cannot be created or destroyed–only moved between one place and another place, between objects and/or fields, or between systems. (HS-ESS1-2)
  • In nuclear processes, atoms are not conserved, but the total number of protons plus neutrons is conserved. (HS-ESS1-3)

 

   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

        Connections to Engineering,Technology,

                     and Applications of Science

 

Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems

  • Scientific knowledge is based on the assumption that natural laws operate today as they did in the past and they will continue to do so in the future. (HS-ESS1-2)
  • Science assumes the universe is a vast single system in which basic laws are consistent. (HS-ESS1-2)

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS1.A (HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3); HS.PS1.C (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3); HS.PS2.B (HS-ESS1-4); HS.PS3.A (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2); HS.PS3.B (HS-ESS1-2); HS.PS4.A (HS-ESS1-2)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS1.A (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3); MS.PS2.A (HS-ESS1-4); MS.PS2.B (HS-ESS1-4); MS.PS4.B (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2); MS.ESS1.A (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3),(HS-ESS1-4); MS.ESS1.B (HS-ESS1-4); MS.ESS2.A (HS-ESS1-1); MS.ESS2.D (HS-ESS1-1)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3)
SL.11-12.4Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. (HS-ESS1-3)
Mathematics -
MP.2Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3),(HS-ESS1-4)
MP.4Model with mathematics. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-4)
HSN-Q.A.1Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4)
HSN-Q.A.2Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4)
HSN-Q.A.3Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4)
HSA-SSE.A.1Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4)
HSA-CED.A.2Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4)
HSA-CED.A.4Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4)

HS-ESS1 Earth's Place in the Universe

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-ESS1-1. Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the life span of the sun and the role of nuclear fusion in the sun’s core to release energy that eventually reaches Earth in the form of radiation. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the energy transfer mechanisms that allow energy from nuclear fusion in the sun’s core to reach Earth. Examples of evidence for the model include observations of the masses and lifetimes of other stars, as well as the ways that the sun’s radiation varies due to sudden solar flares (“space weather”), the 11-year sunspot cycle, and non-cyclic variations over centuries.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include details of the atomic and sub-atomic processes involved with the sun’s nuclear fusion.]
HS-ESS1-2. Construct an explanation of the Big Bang theory based on astronomical evidence of light spectra, motion of distant galaxies, and composition of matter in the universe. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the astronomical evidence of the red shift of light from galaxies as an indication that the universe is currently expanding, the cosmic microwave background as the remnant radiation from the Big Bang, and the observed composition of ordinary matter of the universe, primarily found in stars and interstellar gases (from the spectra of electromagnetic radiation from stars), which matches that predicted by the Big Bang theory (3/4 hydrogen and 1/4 helium).]
HS-ESS1-3. Communicate scientific ideas about the way stars, over their life cycle, produce elements. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the way nucleosynthesis, and therefore the different elements created, varies as a function of the mass of a star and the stage of its lifetime.] [Assessment Boundary: Details of the many different nucleosynthesis pathways for stars of differing masses are not assessed.]
HS-ESS1-4. Use mathematical or computational representations to predict the motion of orbiting objects in the solar system. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on Newtonian gravitational laws governing orbital motions, which apply to human-made satellites as well as planets and moons.] [Assessment Boundary: Mathematical representations for the gravitational attraction of bodies and Kepler’s Laws of orbital motions should not deal with more than two bodies, nor involve calculus.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed world(s).

Using Mathematical and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods, and designs.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

  • A scientific theory is a substantiated explanation of some aspect of the natural world, based on a body of facts that have been repeatedly confirmed through observation and experiment and the science community validates each theory before it is accepted. If new evidence is discovered that the theory does not accommodate, the theory is generally modified in light of this new evidence. (HS-ESS1-2)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

ESS1.A: The Universe and Its Stars

ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System

PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life

PS4.B: Electromagnetic Radiation

Crosscutting Concepts

Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

Energy and Matter

  • Energy cannot be created or destroyed–only moved between one place and another place, between objects and/or fields, or between systems. (HS-ESS1-2)
  • In nuclear processes, atoms are not conserved, but the total number of protons plus neutrons is conserved. (HS-ESS1-3)

 

   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

        Connections to Engineering,Technology,

                     and Applications of Science

 

Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge Assumes an Order and Consistency in Natural Systems

  • Scientific knowledge is based on the assumption that natural laws operate today as they did in the past and they will continue to do so in the future. (HS-ESS1-2)
  • Science assumes the universe is a vast single system in which basic laws are consistent. (HS-ESS1-2)

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS1.A (HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3); HS.PS1.C (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3); HS.PS2.B (HS-ESS1-4); HS.PS3.A (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2); HS.PS3.B (HS-ESS1-2); HS.PS4.A (HS-ESS1-2)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS1.A (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3); MS.PS2.A (HS-ESS1-4); MS.PS2.B (HS-ESS1-4); MS.PS4.B (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2); MS.ESS1.A (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3),(HS-ESS1-4); MS.ESS1.B (HS-ESS1-4); MS.ESS2.A (HS-ESS1-1); MS.ESS2.D (HS-ESS1-1)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3)
SL.11-12.4Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. (HS-ESS1-3)
Mathematics -
MP.2Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-3),(HS-ESS1-4)
MP.4Model with mathematics. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-4)
HSN-Q.A.1Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4)
HSN-Q.A.2Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4)
HSN-Q.A.3Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4)
HSA-SSE.A.1Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4)
HSA-CED.A.2Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4)
HSA-CED.A.4Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. (HS-ESS1-1),(HS-ESS1-2),(HS-ESS1-4)

* The performance expectations marked with an asterisk integrate traditional science content with engineering through a Practice or Disciplinary Core Idea.

The section entitled “Disciplinary Core Ideas” is reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Integrated and reprinted with permission from the National Academy of Sciences.