HS.Weather and Climate

HS.   Weather and Climate

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-ESS2-4. Use a model to describe how variations in the flow of energy into and out of Earth’s systems result in changes in climate. [Clarification Statement: Examples of the causes of climate change differ by timescale, over 1-10 years: large volcanic eruption, ocean circulation; 10-100s of years: changes in human activity, ocean circulation, solar output; 10-100s of thousands of years: changes to Earth's orbit and the orientation of its axis; and 10-100s of millions of years: long-term changes in atmospheric composition.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment of the results of changes in climate is limited to changes in surface temperatures, precipitation patterns, glacial ice volumes, sea levels, and biosphere distribution.]
HS-ESS3-5. Analyze geoscience data and the results from global climate models to make an evidence-based forecast of the current rate of global or regional climate change and associated future impacts to Earth systems. [Clarification Statement: Examples of evidence, for both data and climate model outputs, are for climate changes (such as precipitation and temperature) and their associated impacts (such as on sea level, glacial ice volumes, or atmosphere and ocean composition).] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to one example of a climate change and its associated impacts.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed world(s).

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.

 

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           Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods

  • Science investigations use diverse methods and do not always use the same set of procedures to obtain data. (HS-ESS3-5)
  • New technologies advance scientific knowledge. (HS-ESS3-5)

Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence

  • Science knowledge is based on empirical evidence. (HS-ESS3-5)
  • Science arguments are strengthened by multiple lines of evidence supporting a single explanation. (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System

  • Cyclical changes in the shape of Earth’s orbit around the sun, together with changes in the tilt of the planet’s axis of rotation, both occurring over hundreds of thousands of years, have altered the intensity and distribution of sunlight falling on the earth. These phenomena cause a cycle of ice ages and other gradual climate changes. (secondary to HS-ESS2-4)

ESS2.A: Earth Materials and Systems

ESS2.D: Weather and Climate

ESS3.D: Global Climate Change

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Stability and Change

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS3.A (HS-ESS2-4); HS.PS3.B (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5); HS.PS3.D (HS-ESS3-5); HS.LS1.C (HS-ESS3-5); HS.LS2.C (HS-ESS2-4); HS.ESS1.C (HS-ESS2-4); HS.ESS2.D (HS-ESS3-5); HS.ESS3.C (HS-ESS2-4); HS.ESS3.D (HS-ESS2-4)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS3.A (HS-ESS2-4); MS.PS3.B (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5); MS.PS3.D (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5); MS.PS4.B (HS-ESS2-4); MS.LS1.C (HS-ESS2-4); MS.LS2.B (HS-ESS2-4); MS.LS2.C (HS-ESS2-4); MS.ESS2.A (HS-ESS2-4),(MS-ESS3-5); MS.ESS2.B (HS-ESS2-4); MS.ESS2.C (HS-ESS2-4); MS.ESS2.D (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5); MS.ESS3.B (HS-ESS3-5); MS.ESS3.C (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5); MS.ESS3.D (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-ESS3-5)
RST.11-12.2Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; summarize complex concepts, processes, or information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler but still accurate terms. (HS-ESS3-5)
RST.11-12.7Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (HS-ESS3-5)
SL.11-12.5Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-ESS2-4)
Mathematics -
MP.2Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5)
MP.4Model with mathematics. (HS-ESS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.1Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5)
HSN.Q.A.2Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5)
HSN.Q.A.3Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5)

HS.   Weather and Climate

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-ESS2-4. Use a model to describe how variations in the flow of energy into and out of Earth’s systems result in changes in climate. [Clarification Statement: Examples of the causes of climate change differ by timescale, over 1-10 years: large volcanic eruption, ocean circulation; 10-100s of years: changes in human activity, ocean circulation, solar output; 10-100s of thousands of years: changes to Earth's orbit and the orientation of its axis; and 10-100s of millions of years: long-term changes in atmospheric composition.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment of the results of changes in climate is limited to changes in surface temperatures, precipitation patterns, glacial ice volumes, sea levels, and biosphere distribution.]
HS-ESS3-5. Analyze geoscience data and the results from global climate models to make an evidence-based forecast of the current rate of global or regional climate change and associated future impacts to Earth systems. [Clarification Statement: Examples of evidence, for both data and climate model outputs, are for climate changes (such as precipitation and temperature) and their associated impacts (such as on sea level, glacial ice volumes, or atmosphere and ocean composition).] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to one example of a climate change and its associated impacts.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed world(s).

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  - - - - - -

           Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods

  • Science investigations use diverse methods and do not always use the same set of procedures to obtain data. (HS-ESS3-5)
  • New technologies advance scientific knowledge. (HS-ESS3-5)

Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence

  • Science knowledge is based on empirical evidence. (HS-ESS3-5)
  • Science arguments are strengthened by multiple lines of evidence supporting a single explanation. (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System

  • Cyclical changes in the shape of Earth’s orbit around the sun, together with changes in the tilt of the planet’s axis of rotation, both occurring over hundreds of thousands of years, have altered the intensity and distribution of sunlight falling on the earth. These phenomena cause a cycle of ice ages and other gradual climate changes. (secondary to HS-ESS2-4)

ESS2.A: Earth Materials and Systems

ESS2.D: Weather and Climate

ESS3.D: Global Climate Change

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Stability and Change

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS3.A (HS-ESS2-4); HS.PS3.B (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5); HS.PS3.D (HS-ESS3-5); HS.LS1.C (HS-ESS3-5); HS.LS2.C (HS-ESS2-4); HS.ESS1.C (HS-ESS2-4); HS.ESS2.D (HS-ESS3-5); HS.ESS3.C (HS-ESS2-4); HS.ESS3.D (HS-ESS2-4)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS3.A (HS-ESS2-4); MS.PS3.B (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5); MS.PS3.D (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5); MS.PS4.B (HS-ESS2-4); MS.LS1.C (HS-ESS2-4); MS.LS2.B (HS-ESS2-4); MS.LS2.C (HS-ESS2-4); MS.ESS2.A (HS-ESS2-4),(MS-ESS3-5); MS.ESS2.B (HS-ESS2-4); MS.ESS2.C (HS-ESS2-4); MS.ESS2.D (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5); MS.ESS3.B (HS-ESS3-5); MS.ESS3.C (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5); MS.ESS3.D (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-ESS3-5)
RST.11-12.2Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; summarize complex concepts, processes, or information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler but still accurate terms. (HS-ESS3-5)
RST.11-12.7Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (HS-ESS3-5)
SL.11-12.5Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-ESS2-4)
Mathematics -
MP.2Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5)
MP.4Model with mathematics. (HS-ESS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.1Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5)
HSN.Q.A.2Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5)
HSN.Q.A.3Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5)

HS.   Weather and Climate

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-ESS2-4. Use a model to describe how variations in the flow of energy into and out of Earth’s systems result in changes in climate. [Clarification Statement: Examples of the causes of climate change differ by timescale, over 1-10 years: large volcanic eruption, ocean circulation; 10-100s of years: changes in human activity, ocean circulation, solar output; 10-100s of thousands of years: changes to Earth's orbit and the orientation of its axis; and 10-100s of millions of years: long-term changes in atmospheric composition.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment of the results of changes in climate is limited to changes in surface temperatures, precipitation patterns, glacial ice volumes, sea levels, and biosphere distribution.]
HS-ESS3-5. Analyze geoscience data and the results from global climate models to make an evidence-based forecast of the current rate of global or regional climate change and associated future impacts to Earth systems. [Clarification Statement: Examples of evidence, for both data and climate model outputs, are for climate changes (such as precipitation and temperature) and their associated impacts (such as on sea level, glacial ice volumes, or atmosphere and ocean composition).] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to one example of a climate change and its associated impacts.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed world(s).

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  - - - - - -

           Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Investigations Use a Variety of Methods

  • Science investigations use diverse methods and do not always use the same set of procedures to obtain data. (HS-ESS3-5)
  • New technologies advance scientific knowledge. (HS-ESS3-5)

Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence

  • Science knowledge is based on empirical evidence. (HS-ESS3-5)
  • Science arguments are strengthened by multiple lines of evidence supporting a single explanation. (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System

  • Cyclical changes in the shape of Earth’s orbit around the sun, together with changes in the tilt of the planet’s axis of rotation, both occurring over hundreds of thousands of years, have altered the intensity and distribution of sunlight falling on the earth. These phenomena cause a cycle of ice ages and other gradual climate changes. (secondary to HS-ESS2-4)

ESS2.A: Earth Materials and Systems

ESS2.D: Weather and Climate

ESS3.D: Global Climate Change

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Stability and Change

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS3.A (HS-ESS2-4); HS.PS3.B (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5); HS.PS3.D (HS-ESS3-5); HS.LS1.C (HS-ESS3-5); HS.LS2.C (HS-ESS2-4); HS.ESS1.C (HS-ESS2-4); HS.ESS2.D (HS-ESS3-5); HS.ESS3.C (HS-ESS2-4); HS.ESS3.D (HS-ESS2-4)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS3.A (HS-ESS2-4); MS.PS3.B (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5); MS.PS3.D (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5); MS.PS4.B (HS-ESS2-4); MS.LS1.C (HS-ESS2-4); MS.LS2.B (HS-ESS2-4); MS.LS2.C (HS-ESS2-4); MS.ESS2.A (HS-ESS2-4),(MS-ESS3-5); MS.ESS2.B (HS-ESS2-4); MS.ESS2.C (HS-ESS2-4); MS.ESS2.D (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5); MS.ESS3.B (HS-ESS3-5); MS.ESS3.C (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5); MS.ESS3.D (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST.11-12.1Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-ESS3-5)
RST.11-12.2Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text; summarize complex concepts, processes, or information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler but still accurate terms. (HS-ESS3-5)
RST.11-12.7Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (HS-ESS3-5)
SL.11-12.5Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-ESS2-4)
Mathematics -
MP.2Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5)
MP.4Model with mathematics. (HS-ESS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.1Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5)
HSN.Q.A.2Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5)
HSN.Q.A.3Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-ESS2-4),(HS-ESS3-5)

* The performance expectations marked with an asterisk integrate traditional science content with engineering through a Practice or Disciplinary Core Idea.

The section entitled “Disciplinary Core Ideas” is reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Integrated and reprinted with permission from the National Academy of Sciences.