HS-ESS1-4    Earth's Place in the Universe

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-ESS1-4. Use mathematical or computational representations to predict the motion of orbiting objects in the solar system. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on Newtonian gravitational laws governing orbital motions, which apply to human-made satellites as well as planets and moons.] [Assessment Boundary: Mathematical representations for the gravitational attraction of bodies and Kepler’s Laws of orbital motions should not deal with more than two bodies, nor involve calculus.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

## Science and Engineering Practices

### Using Mathematical and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

## Crosscutting Concepts

### Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

### Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

Common Core State Standards Connections:

HS-ESS1-4    Earth's Place in the Universe

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-ESS1-4. Use mathematical or computational representations to predict the motion of orbiting objects in the solar system. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on Newtonian gravitational laws governing orbital motions, which apply to human-made satellites as well as planets and moons.] [Assessment Boundary: Mathematical representations for the gravitational attraction of bodies and Kepler’s Laws of orbital motions should not deal with more than two bodies, nor involve calculus.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

## Science and Engineering Practices

### Using Mathematical and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

## Crosscutting Concepts

### Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

### Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

Common Core State Standards Connections:

HS-ESS1-4    Earth's Place in the Universe

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-ESS1-4. Use mathematical or computational representations to predict the motion of orbiting objects in the solar system. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on Newtonian gravitational laws governing orbital motions, which apply to human-made satellites as well as planets and moons.] [Assessment Boundary: Mathematical representations for the gravitational attraction of bodies and Kepler’s Laws of orbital motions should not deal with more than two bodies, nor involve calculus.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

## Science and Engineering Practices

### Using Mathematical and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

## Crosscutting Concepts

### Scale, Proportion, and Quantity

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

### Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

Common Core State Standards Connections:

* The performance expectations marked with an asterisk integrate traditional science content with engineering through a Practice or Disciplinary Core Idea.

The section entitled “Disciplinary Core Ideas” is reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Integrated and reprinted with permission from the National Academy of Sciences.

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## How to Read the Standards

The standards integrate three dimensions within each standard and have intentional connections across standards. More...