# HS-PS2-4 Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

HS-PS2-4   Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-PS2-4. Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both quantitative and conceptual descriptions of gravitational and electric fields.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to systems with two objects.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

## Science and Engineering Practices

### Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking at the 9–12 level builds on K–8 and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

### Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

• Theories and laws provide explanations in science.
• Laws are statements or descriptions of the relationships among observable phenomena.

## Crosscutting Concepts

### Patterns

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-level:

Common Core State Standards Connections:

HS-PS2-4   Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-PS2-4. Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both quantitative and conceptual descriptions of gravitational and electric fields.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to systems with two objects.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

## Science and Engineering Practices

### Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking at the 9–12 level builds on K–8 and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

### Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

• Theories and laws provide explanations in science.
• Laws are statements or descriptions of the relationships among observable phenomena.

## Crosscutting Concepts

### Patterns

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-level:

Common Core State Standards Connections:

HS-PS2-4   Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-PS2-4. Use mathematical representations of Newton’s Law of Gravitation and Coulomb’s Law to describe and predict the gravitational and electrostatic forces between objects. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both quantitative and conceptual descriptions of gravitational and electric fields.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to systems with two objects.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

## Science and Engineering Practices

### Using Mathematics and Computational Thinking

Mathematical and computational thinking at the 9–12 level builds on K–8 and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

### Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena

• Theories and laws provide explanations in science.
• Laws are statements or descriptions of the relationships among observable phenomena.

## Crosscutting Concepts

### Patterns

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-level: