# MS-PS2-4 Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

MS-PS2-4   Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-PS2-4. Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects. [Clarification Statement: Examples of evidence for arguments could include data generated from simulations or digital tools; and charts displaying mass, strength of interaction, distance from the Sun, and orbital periods of objects within the solar system.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include Newton’s Law of Gravitation or Kepler’s Laws.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

## Science and Engineering Practices

### Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 6–8 builds from K–5 experiences and progresses to constructing a convincing argument that supports or refutes claims for either explanations or solutions about the natural and designed world.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

### Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence

• Science knowledge is based upon logical and conceptual connections between evidence and explanations.

## Crosscutting Concepts

### Systems and System Models

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

Common Core State Standards Connections:

WHST.6-8.1 ELA/Literacy - Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content. (MS-PS2-4)

MS-PS2-4   Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-PS2-4. Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects. [Clarification Statement: Examples of evidence for arguments could include data generated from simulations or digital tools; and charts displaying mass, strength of interaction, distance from the Sun, and orbital periods of objects within the solar system.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include Newton’s Law of Gravitation or Kepler’s Laws.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

## Science and Engineering Practices

### Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 6–8 builds from K–5 experiences and progresses to constructing a convincing argument that supports or refutes claims for either explanations or solutions about the natural and designed world.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

### Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence

• Science knowledge is based upon logical and conceptual connections between evidence and explanations.

## Crosscutting Concepts

### Systems and System Models

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

Common Core State Standards Connections:

WHST.6-8.1 ELA/Literacy - Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content. (MS-PS2-4)

MS-PS2-4   Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-PS2-4. Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects. [Clarification Statement: Examples of evidence for arguments could include data generated from simulations or digital tools; and charts displaying mass, strength of interaction, distance from the Sun, and orbital periods of objects within the solar system.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include Newton’s Law of Gravitation or Kepler’s Laws.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

## Science and Engineering Practices

### Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 6–8 builds from K–5 experiences and progresses to constructing a convincing argument that supports or refutes claims for either explanations or solutions about the natural and designed world.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

### Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence

• Science knowledge is based upon logical and conceptual connections between evidence and explanations.

## Crosscutting Concepts

### Systems and System Models

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band: