4.Energy

4-PS3   Energy

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

4-PS3-1.Use evidence to construct an explanation relating the speed of an object to the energy of that object. [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include quantitative measures of changes in the speed of an object or on any precise or quantitative definition of energy.
4-PS3-2.Make observations to provide evidence that energy can be transferred from place to place by sound, light, heat, and electric currents. [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include quantitative measurements of energy.]
4-PS3-3.Ask questions and predict outcomes about the changes in energy that occur when objects collide. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the change in the energy due to the change in speed, not on the forces, as objects interact.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include quantitative measurements of energy.]
4-PS3-4.Apply scientific ideas to design, test, and refine a device that converts energy from one form to another.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of devices could include electric circuits that convert electrical energy into motion energy of a vehicle, light, or sound; and, a passive solar heater that converts light into heat. Examples of constraints could include the materials, cost, or time to design the device.] [Assessment Boundary: Devices should be limited to those that convert motion energy to electric energy or use stored energy to cause motion or produce light or sound.]
4-ESS3-1.Obtain and combine information to describe that energy and fuels are derived from natural resources and their uses affect the environment. [Clarification Statement: Examples of renewable energy resources could include wind energy, water behind dams, and sunlight; non-renewable energy resources are fossil fuels and fissile materials. Examples of environmental effects could include loss of habitat due to dams, loss of habitat due to surface mining, and air pollution from burning of fossil fuels.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Asking Questions and Defining Problems

Asking questions and defining problems in grades 3–5 builds on grades K–2 experiences and progresses to specifying qualitative relationships.

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to include investigations that control variables and provide evidence to support explanations or design solutions.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to the use of evidence in constructing explanations that specify variables that describe and predict phenomena and in designing multiple solutions to design problems.

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to evaluate the merit and accuracy of ideas and methods.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS3.A: Definitions of Energy

PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and EnergyTransfer

PS3.C: Relationship Between Energy and Forces

PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life

ESS3.A: Natural Resources

ETS1.A: Defining Engineering Problems

Crosscutting Concepts

Energy and Matter

Cause and Effect

     - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  - - - - - - - - -

  Connections to Engineering, Technology, and                      Applications of Science

 

Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology

  • Knowledge of relevant scientific concepts and research findings is important in engineering. (4-ESS3-1)

Influence of Engineering, Technology, and Science on Society and the Natural World

     - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  - - - - - - - - -

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science is a Human Endeavor

Connections to other DCIs in fourth grade: N/A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-levels:

K.PS2.B (4-PS3-3); K.ETS1.A (4-PS3-4); 2.ETS1.B (4-PS3-4); 3.PS2.A (4 -PS3-3); 5.PS3.D (4-PS3-4); 5.LS1.C (4-PS3-4); 5.ESS3.C (4-ESS3-1); MS.PS2.A (4-PS3-3); MS.PS3.A (4-PS3-1),(4-PS3-2),(4-PS3-3),(4-PS3-4); MS.PS3.B (4-PS3-2),(4-PS3-3),(4-PS3-4); MS.PS3.C (4-PS3-3); MS.PS3.D (4-ESS3-1); MS.PS4.B (4-PS3-2); MS.ESS2.A (4-ESS3-1); MS.ESS3.A (4-ESS3-1); MS.ESS3.C (4-ESS3-1); MS.ESS3.D (4-ESS3-1); MS.ETS1.B (4-PS3-4); MS.ETS1.C (4-PS3-4)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RI.4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. (4-PS3-1)
RI.4.3 Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text. (4-PS3-1)
RI.4.9 Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably. (4-PS3-1)
W.4.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. (4-PS3-1)
W.4.7 Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. (4- PS3-2),(4-PS3-3),(4-PS3-4),(4-ESS3-1)
W.4.8Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources. (4-PS3-1),(4-PS3-2),(4-PS3-3),(4-PS3-4),(4-ESS3-1)
W.4.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (4-PS3-1),(4-ESS3-1)
Mathematics -
MP.2Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (4-ESS3-1)
MP.4Model with mathematics. (4-ESS3-1)
4.OA.A.1 Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison, e.g., interpret 35 = 5 × 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5. Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations. (4-ESS3-1)
4.OA.A.3 Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding. (4-PS3-4)

4-PS3   Energy

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

4-PS3-1.Use evidence to construct an explanation relating the speed of an object to the energy of that object. [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include quantitative measures of changes in the speed of an object or on any precise or quantitative definition of energy.
4-PS3-2.Make observations to provide evidence that energy can be transferred from place to place by sound, light, heat, and electric currents. [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include quantitative measurements of energy.]
4-PS3-3.Ask questions and predict outcomes about the changes in energy that occur when objects collide. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the change in the energy due to the change in speed, not on the forces, as objects interact.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include quantitative measurements of energy.]
4-PS3-4.Apply scientific ideas to design, test, and refine a device that converts energy from one form to another.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of devices could include electric circuits that convert electrical energy into motion energy of a vehicle, light, or sound; and, a passive solar heater that converts light into heat. Examples of constraints could include the materials, cost, or time to design the device.] [Assessment Boundary: Devices should be limited to those that convert motion energy to electric energy or use stored energy to cause motion or produce light or sound.]
4-ESS3-1.Obtain and combine information to describe that energy and fuels are derived from natural resources and their uses affect the environment. [Clarification Statement: Examples of renewable energy resources could include wind energy, water behind dams, and sunlight; non-renewable energy resources are fossil fuels and fissile materials. Examples of environmental effects could include loss of habitat due to dams, loss of habitat due to surface mining, and air pollution from burning of fossil fuels.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Asking Questions and Defining Problems

Asking questions and defining problems in grades 3–5 builds on grades K–2 experiences and progresses to specifying qualitative relationships.

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to include investigations that control variables and provide evidence to support explanations or design solutions.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to the use of evidence in constructing explanations that specify variables that describe and predict phenomena and in designing multiple solutions to design problems.

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to evaluate the merit and accuracy of ideas and methods.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS3.A: Definitions of Energy

PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and EnergyTransfer

PS3.C: Relationship Between Energy and Forces

PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life

ESS3.A: Natural Resources

ETS1.A: Defining Engineering Problems

Crosscutting Concepts

Energy and Matter

Cause and Effect

     - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  - - - - - - - - -

  Connections to Engineering, Technology, and                      Applications of Science

 

Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology

  • Knowledge of relevant scientific concepts and research findings is important in engineering. (4-ESS3-1)

Influence of Engineering, Technology, and Science on Society and the Natural World

     - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  - - - - - - - - -

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science is a Human Endeavor

Connections to other DCIs in fourth grade: N/A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-levels:

K.PS2.B (4-PS3-3); K.ETS1.A (4-PS3-4); 2.ETS1.B (4-PS3-4); 3.PS2.A (4 -PS3-3); 5.PS3.D (4-PS3-4); 5.LS1.C (4-PS3-4); 5.ESS3.C (4-ESS3-1); MS.PS2.A (4-PS3-3); MS.PS3.A (4-PS3-1),(4-PS3-2),(4-PS3-3),(4-PS3-4); MS.PS3.B (4-PS3-2),(4-PS3-3),(4-PS3-4); MS.PS3.C (4-PS3-3); MS.PS3.D (4-ESS3-1); MS.PS4.B (4-PS3-2); MS.ESS2.A (4-ESS3-1); MS.ESS3.A (4-ESS3-1); MS.ESS3.C (4-ESS3-1); MS.ESS3.D (4-ESS3-1); MS.ETS1.B (4-PS3-4); MS.ETS1.C (4-PS3-4)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RI.4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. (4-PS3-1)
RI.4.3 Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text. (4-PS3-1)
RI.4.9 Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably. (4-PS3-1)
W.4.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. (4-PS3-1)
W.4.7 Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. (4- PS3-2),(4-PS3-3),(4-PS3-4),(4-ESS3-1)
W.4.8Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources. (4-PS3-1),(4-PS3-2),(4-PS3-3),(4-PS3-4),(4-ESS3-1)
W.4.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (4-PS3-1),(4-ESS3-1)
Mathematics -
MP.2Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (4-ESS3-1)
MP.4Model with mathematics. (4-ESS3-1)
4.OA.A.1 Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison, e.g., interpret 35 = 5 × 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5. Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations. (4-ESS3-1)
4.OA.A.3 Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding. (4-PS3-4)

4-PS3   Energy

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

4-PS3-1.Use evidence to construct an explanation relating the speed of an object to the energy of that object. [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include quantitative measures of changes in the speed of an object or on any precise or quantitative definition of energy.
4-PS3-2.Make observations to provide evidence that energy can be transferred from place to place by sound, light, heat, and electric currents. [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include quantitative measurements of energy.]
4-PS3-3.Ask questions and predict outcomes about the changes in energy that occur when objects collide. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the change in the energy due to the change in speed, not on the forces, as objects interact.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include quantitative measurements of energy.]
4-PS3-4.Apply scientific ideas to design, test, and refine a device that converts energy from one form to another.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of devices could include electric circuits that convert electrical energy into motion energy of a vehicle, light, or sound; and, a passive solar heater that converts light into heat. Examples of constraints could include the materials, cost, or time to design the device.] [Assessment Boundary: Devices should be limited to those that convert motion energy to electric energy or use stored energy to cause motion or produce light or sound.]
4-ESS3-1.Obtain and combine information to describe that energy and fuels are derived from natural resources and their uses affect the environment. [Clarification Statement: Examples of renewable energy resources could include wind energy, water behind dams, and sunlight; non-renewable energy resources are fossil fuels and fissile materials. Examples of environmental effects could include loss of habitat due to dams, loss of habitat due to surface mining, and air pollution from burning of fossil fuels.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Asking Questions and Defining Problems

Asking questions and defining problems in grades 3–5 builds on grades K–2 experiences and progresses to specifying qualitative relationships.

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to include investigations that control variables and provide evidence to support explanations or design solutions.

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to the use of evidence in constructing explanations that specify variables that describe and predict phenomena and in designing multiple solutions to design problems.

Obtaining, Evaluating, and Communicating Information

Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 3–5 builds on K–2 experiences and progresses to evaluate the merit and accuracy of ideas and methods.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

PS3.A: Definitions of Energy

PS3.B: Conservation of Energy and EnergyTransfer

PS3.C: Relationship Between Energy and Forces

PS3.D: Energy in Chemical Processes and Everyday Life

ESS3.A: Natural Resources

ETS1.A: Defining Engineering Problems

Crosscutting Concepts

Energy and Matter

Cause and Effect

     - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  - - - - - - - - -

  Connections to Engineering, Technology, and                      Applications of Science

 

Interdependence of Science, Engineering, and Technology

  • Knowledge of relevant scientific concepts and research findings is important in engineering. (4-ESS3-1)

Influence of Engineering, Technology, and Science on Society and the Natural World

     - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  - - - - - - - - -

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Science is a Human Endeavor

Connections to other DCIs in fourth grade: N/A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-levels:

K.PS2.B (4-PS3-3); K.ETS1.A (4-PS3-4); 2.ETS1.B (4-PS3-4); 3.PS2.A (4 -PS3-3); 5.PS3.D (4-PS3-4); 5.LS1.C (4-PS3-4); 5.ESS3.C (4-ESS3-1); MS.PS2.A (4-PS3-3); MS.PS3.A (4-PS3-1),(4-PS3-2),(4-PS3-3),(4-PS3-4); MS.PS3.B (4-PS3-2),(4-PS3-3),(4-PS3-4); MS.PS3.C (4-PS3-3); MS.PS3.D (4-ESS3-1); MS.PS4.B (4-PS3-2); MS.ESS2.A (4-ESS3-1); MS.ESS3.A (4-ESS3-1); MS.ESS3.C (4-ESS3-1); MS.ESS3.D (4-ESS3-1); MS.ETS1.B (4-PS3-4); MS.ETS1.C (4-PS3-4)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RI.4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. (4-PS3-1)
RI.4.3 Explain events, procedures, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text, including what happened and why, based on specific information in the text. (4-PS3-1)
RI.4.9 Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably. (4-PS3-1)
W.4.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. (4-PS3-1)
W.4.7 Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. (4- PS3-2),(4-PS3-3),(4-PS3-4),(4-ESS3-1)
W.4.8Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of sources. (4-PS3-1),(4-PS3-2),(4-PS3-3),(4-PS3-4),(4-ESS3-1)
W.4.9 Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (4-PS3-1),(4-ESS3-1)
Mathematics -
MP.2Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (4-ESS3-1)
MP.4Model with mathematics. (4-ESS3-1)
4.OA.A.1 Interpret a multiplication equation as a comparison, e.g., interpret 35 = 5 × 7 as a statement that 35 is 5 times as many as 7 and 7 times as many as 5. Represent verbal statements of multiplicative comparisons as multiplication equations. (4-ESS3-1)
4.OA.A.3 Solve multistep word problems posed with whole numbers and having whole-number answers using the four operations, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted. Represent these problems using equations with a letter standing for the unknown quantity. Assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies including rounding. (4-PS3-4)

* The performance expectations marked with an asterisk integrate traditional science content with engineering through a Practice or Disciplinary Core Idea.

The section entitled “Disciplinary Core Ideas” is reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Integrated and reprinted with permission from the National Academy of Sciences.