HS-ESS2-4 Earth's Systems

HS-ESS2-4    Earth's Systems

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-ESS2-4. Use a model to describe how variations in the flow of energy into and out of Earth’s systems result in changes in climate. [Clarification Statement: Examples of the causes of climate change differ by timescale, over 1-10 years: large volcanic eruption, ocean circulation; 10-100s of years: changes in human activity, ocean circulation, solar output; 10-100s of thousands of years: changes to Earth's orbit and the orientation of its axis; and 10-100s of millions of years: long-term changes in atmospheric composition.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment of the results of changes in climate is limited to changes in surface temperatures, precipitation patterns, glacial ice volumes, sea levels, and biosphere distribution.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed world(s).

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence

  • Science arguments are strengthened by multiple lines of evidence supporting a single explanation.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System

  • Cyclical changes in the shape of Earth’s orbit around the sun, together with changes in the tilt of the planet’s axis of rotation, both occurring over hundreds of thousands of years, have altered the intensity and distribution of sunlight falling on the earth. These phenomena cause a cycle of ice ages and other gradual climate changes. (secondary)

ESS2.A: Earth Materials and Systems

ESS2.D: Weather and Climate

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS3.A ; HS.PS3.B ; HS.LS2.C ; HS.ESS1.C ; HS.ESS3.C ; HS.ESS3.D

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS3.A ; MS.PS3.B ; MS.PS3.D ; MS.PS4.B ; MS.LS1.C ; MS.LS2.B ; MS.LS2.C ; MS.ESS2.A ; MS.ESS2.B ; MS.ESS2.C ; MS.ESS2.D ; MS.ESS3.C ; MS.ESS3.D

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
SL.11-12.5Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-ESS2-4)
Mathematics -
MP.2Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-ESS2-4)
MP.4Model with mathematics. (HS-ESS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.1Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-ESS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.2Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-ESS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.3Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-ESS2-4)

HS-ESS2    Earth's Systems

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-ESS2-4. Use a model to describe how variations in the flow of energy into and out of Earth’s systems result in changes in climate. [Clarification Statement: Examples of the causes of climate change differ by timescale, over 1-10 years: large volcanic eruption, ocean circulation; 10-100s of years: changes in human activity, ocean circulation, solar output; 10-100s of thousands of years: changes to Earth's orbit and the orientation of its axis; and 10-100s of millions of years: long-term changes in atmospheric composition.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment of the results of changes in climate is limited to changes in surface temperatures, precipitation patterns, glacial ice volumes, sea levels, and biosphere distribution.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed world(s).

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence

  • Science arguments are strengthened by multiple lines of evidence supporting a single explanation.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System

  • Cyclical changes in the shape of Earth’s orbit around the sun, together with changes in the tilt of the planet’s axis of rotation, both occurring over hundreds of thousands of years, have altered the intensity and distribution of sunlight falling on the earth. These phenomena cause a cycle of ice ages and other gradual climate changes. (secondary)

ESS2.A: Earth Materials and Systems

ESS2.D: Weather and Climate

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS3.A ; HS.PS3.B ; HS.LS2.C ; HS.ESS1.C ; HS.ESS3.C ; HS.ESS3.D

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS3.A ; MS.PS3.B ; MS.PS3.D ; MS.PS4.B ; MS.LS1.C ; MS.LS2.B ; MS.LS2.C ; MS.ESS2.A ; MS.ESS2.B ; MS.ESS2.C ; MS.ESS2.D ; MS.ESS3.C ; MS.ESS3.D

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
SL.11-12.5Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-ESS2-4)
Mathematics -
MP.2Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-ESS2-4)
MP.4Model with mathematics. (HS-ESS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.1Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-ESS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.2Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-ESS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.3Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-ESS2-4)

HS-ESS2    Earth's Systems

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-ESS2-4. Use a model to describe how variations in the flow of energy into and out of Earth’s systems result in changes in climate. [Clarification Statement: Examples of the causes of climate change differ by timescale, over 1-10 years: large volcanic eruption, ocean circulation; 10-100s of years: changes in human activity, ocean circulation, solar output; 10-100s of thousands of years: changes to Earth's orbit and the orientation of its axis; and 10-100s of millions of years: long-term changes in atmospheric composition.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment of the results of changes in climate is limited to changes in surface temperatures, precipitation patterns, glacial ice volumes, sea levels, and biosphere distribution.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Developing and Using Models

Modeling in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to using, synthesizing, and developing models to predict and show relationships among variables between systems and their components in the natural and designed world(s).

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 

         Connections to Nature of Science

 

Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence

  • Science arguments are strengthened by multiple lines of evidence supporting a single explanation.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

ESS1.B: Earth and the Solar System

  • Cyclical changes in the shape of Earth’s orbit around the sun, together with changes in the tilt of the planet’s axis of rotation, both occurring over hundreds of thousands of years, have altered the intensity and distribution of sunlight falling on the earth. These phenomena cause a cycle of ice ages and other gradual climate changes. (secondary)

ESS2.A: Earth Materials and Systems

ESS2.D: Weather and Climate

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.PS3.A ; HS.PS3.B ; HS.LS2.C ; HS.ESS1.C ; HS.ESS3.C ; HS.ESS3.D

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.PS3.A ; MS.PS3.B ; MS.PS3.D ; MS.PS4.B ; MS.LS1.C ; MS.LS2.B ; MS.LS2.C ; MS.ESS2.A ; MS.ESS2.B ; MS.ESS2.C ; MS.ESS2.D ; MS.ESS3.C ; MS.ESS3.D

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
SL.11-12.5Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. (HS-ESS2-4)
Mathematics -
MP.2Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-ESS2-4)
MP.4Model with mathematics. (HS-ESS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.1Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HS-ESS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.2Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HS-ESS2-4)
HSN.Q.A.3Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HS-ESS2-4)

* The performance expectations marked with an asterisk integrate traditional science content with engineering through a Practice or Disciplinary Core Idea.

The section entitled “Disciplinary Core Ideas” is reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Integrated and reprinted with permission from the National Academy of Sciences.