HS-LS4-2 Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

HS-LS4-2    Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS4-2. Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily results from four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using evidence to explain the influence each of the four factors has on number of organisms, behaviors, morphology, or physiology in terms of ability to compete for limited resources and subsequent survival of individuals and adaptation of species. Examples of evidence could include mathematical models such as simple distribution graphs and proportional reasoning.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include other mechanisms of evolution, such as genetic drift, gene flow through migration, and co-evolution.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS4.B: Natural Selection

LS4.C: Adaptation

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.LS2.A ; HS.LS2.D ; HS.LS3.B ; HS.ESS2.E ; HS.ESS3.A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.A ; LS3.B ; MS.LS4.B ; MS.LS4.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST-11.12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS4-2)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS4-2)
WHST.9-12.9Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-LS4-2)
SL.11-12.4Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. (HS-LS4-2)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS4-2)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-LS4-2)

HS-LS4-2    Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS4-2. Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily results from four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using evidence to explain the influence each of the four factors has on number of organisms, behaviors, morphology, or physiology in terms of ability to compete for limited resources and subsequent survival of individuals and adaptation of species. Examples of evidence could include mathematical models such as simple distribution graphs and proportional reasoning.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include other mechanisms of evolution, such as genetic drift, gene flow through migration, and co-evolution.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS4.B: Natural Selection

LS4.C: Adaptation

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.LS2.A ; HS.LS2.D ; HS.LS3.B ; HS.ESS2.E ; HS.ESS3.A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.A ; LS3.B ; MS.LS4.B ; MS.LS4.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST-11.12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS4-2)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS4-2)
WHST.9-12.9Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-LS4-2)
SL.11-12.4Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. (HS-LS4-2)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS4-2)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-LS4-2)

HS-LS4-2    Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-LS4-2. Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily results from four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using evidence to explain the influence each of the four factors has on number of organisms, behaviors, morphology, or physiology in terms of ability to compete for limited resources and subsequent survival of individuals and adaptation of species. Examples of evidence could include mathematical models such as simple distribution graphs and proportional reasoning.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include other mechanisms of evolution, such as genetic drift, gene flow through migration, and co-evolution.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

Science and Engineering Practices

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent student-generated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

Disciplinary Core Ideas

LS4.B: Natural Selection

LS4.C: Adaptation

Crosscutting Concepts

Cause and Effect

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

HS.LS2.A ; HS.LS2.D ; HS.LS3.B ; HS.ESS2.E ; HS.ESS3.A

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

MS.LS2.A ; LS3.B ; MS.LS4.B ; MS.LS4.C

Common Core State Standards Connections:

ELA/Literacy -
RST-11.12.1 Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HS-LS4-2)
WHST.9-12.2Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HS-LS4-2)
WHST.9-12.9Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HS-LS4-2)
SL.11-12.4Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volume, and clear pronunciation. (HS-LS4-2)
Mathematics -
MP.2 Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HS-LS4-2)
MP.4 Model with mathematics. (HS-LS4-2)

* The performance expectations marked with an asterisk integrate traditional science content with engineering through a Practice or Disciplinary Core Idea.

The section entitled “Disciplinary Core Ideas” is reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Integrated and reprinted with permission from the National Academy of Sciences.