MS.Forces and Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-PS2-1. Apply Newton’s Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of practical problems could include the impact of collisions between two cars, between a car and stationary objects, and between a meteor and a space vehicle.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to vertical or horizontal interactions in one dimension.] Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on balanced (Newton’s First Law) and unbalanced forces in a system, qualitative comparisons of forces, mass and changes in motion (Newton’s Second Law), frame of reference, and specification of units.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to forces and changes in motion in one-dimension in an inertial reference frame and to change in one variable at a time. Assessment does not include the use of trigonometry.] Ask questions about data to determine the factors that affect the strength of electric and magnetic forces. [Clarification Statement: Examples of devices that use electric and magnetic forces could include electromagnets, electric motors, or generators. Examples of data could include the effect of the number of turns of wire on the strength of an electromagnet, or the effect of increasing the number or strength of magnets on the speed of an electric motor.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment about questions that require quantitative answers is limited to proportional reasoning and algebraic thinking.] Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects. [Clarification Statement: Examples of evidence for arguments could include data generated from simulations or digital tools; and charts displaying mass, strength of interaction, distance from the Sun, and orbital periods of objects within the solar system.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include Newton’s Law of Gravitation or Kepler’s Laws.] Conduct an investigation and evaluate the experimental design to provide evidence that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact. [Clarification Statement: Examples of this phenomenon could include the interactions of magnets, electrically-charged strips of tape, and electrically-charged pith balls. Examples of investigations could include first-hand experiences or simulations.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to electric and magnetic fields, and limited to qualitative evidence for the existence of fields.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

## Science and Engineering Practices

### Asking Questions and Defining Problems

Asking questions and defining problems in grades 6–8 builds from grades K–5 experiences and progresses to specifying relationships between variables, and clarifying arguments and models.

### Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include investigations that use multiple variables and provide evidence to support explanations or design solutions.

### Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include constructing explanations and designing solutions supported by multiple sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

### Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 6–8 builds from K–5 experiences and progresses to constructing a convincing argument that supports or refutes claims for either explanations or solutions about the natural and designed world.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

### Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence

• Science knowledge is based upon logical and conceptual connections between evidence and explanations. (MS-PS2-2),(MS-PS2-4)

## Crosscutting Concepts

### Stability and Change

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

### Connections to Engineering,Technology,

and Applications of Science

### Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on Society and the Natural World

• The uses of technologies and any limitations on their use are driven by individual or societal needs, desires, and values; by the findings of scientific research; and by differences in such factors as climate, natural resources, and economic conditions. (MS-PS2-1)

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

MS.PS3.A (MS-PS2-2); MS.PS3.B (MS-PS2-2); MS.PS3.C (MS-PS2-1); MS.ESS1.A (MS-PS2-4); MS.ESS1.B (MS-PS2-4); MS.ESS2.C (MS-PS2-2),(MS-PS2-4)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

3.PS2.A (MS-PS2-1),(MS-PS2-2); 3.PS2.B (MS-PS2-3),(MS-PS2-5); 5.PS2.B (MS-PS2-4); HS.PS2.A (MS-PS2-1),(MS-PS2-2); HS.PS2.B (MS-PS2-3),(MS-PS2-4),(MS-PS2-5); HS.PS3.A (MS-PS2-5); HS.PS3.B (MS-PS2-2),(MS-PS2-5); HS.PS3.C (MS-PS2-5); HS.ESS1.B (MS-PS2-2),(MS-PS2-4)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

MS.Forces and Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-PS2-1. Apply Newton’s Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of practical problems could include the impact of collisions between two cars, between a car and stationary objects, and between a meteor and a space vehicle.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to vertical or horizontal interactions in one dimension.] Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on balanced (Newton’s First Law) and unbalanced forces in a system, qualitative comparisons of forces, mass and changes in motion (Newton’s Second Law), frame of reference, and specification of units.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to forces and changes in motion in one-dimension in an inertial reference frame and to change in one variable at a time. Assessment does not include the use of trigonometry.] Ask questions about data to determine the factors that affect the strength of electric and magnetic forces. [Clarification Statement: Examples of devices that use electric and magnetic forces could include electromagnets, electric motors, or generators. Examples of data could include the effect of the number of turns of wire on the strength of an electromagnet, or the effect of increasing the number or strength of magnets on the speed of an electric motor.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment about questions that require quantitative answers is limited to proportional reasoning and algebraic thinking.] Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects. [Clarification Statement: Examples of evidence for arguments could include data generated from simulations or digital tools; and charts displaying mass, strength of interaction, distance from the Sun, and orbital periods of objects within the solar system.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include Newton’s Law of Gravitation or Kepler’s Laws.] Conduct an investigation and evaluate the experimental design to provide evidence that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact. [Clarification Statement: Examples of this phenomenon could include the interactions of magnets, electrically-charged strips of tape, and electrically-charged pith balls. Examples of investigations could include first-hand experiences or simulations.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to electric and magnetic fields, and limited to qualitative evidence for the existence of fields.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

## Science and Engineering Practices

### Asking Questions and Defining Problems

Asking questions and defining problems in grades 6–8 builds from grades K–5 experiences and progresses to specifying relationships between variables, and clarifying arguments and models.

### Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include investigations that use multiple variables and provide evidence to support explanations or design solutions.

### Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include constructing explanations and designing solutions supported by multiple sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

### Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 6–8 builds from K–5 experiences and progresses to constructing a convincing argument that supports or refutes claims for either explanations or solutions about the natural and designed world.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

### Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence

• Science knowledge is based upon logical and conceptual connections between evidence and explanations. (MS-PS2-2),(MS-PS2-4)

## Crosscutting Concepts

### Stability and Change

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

### Connections to Engineering,Technology,

and Applications of Science

### Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on Society and the Natural World

• The uses of technologies and any limitations on their use are driven by individual or societal needs, desires, and values; by the findings of scientific research; and by differences in such factors as climate, natural resources, and economic conditions. (MS-PS2-1)

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

MS.PS3.A (MS-PS2-2); MS.PS3.B (MS-PS2-2); MS.PS3.C (MS-PS2-1); MS.ESS1.A (MS-PS2-4); MS.ESS1.B (MS-PS2-4); MS.ESS2.C (MS-PS2-2),(MS-PS2-4)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

3.PS2.A (MS-PS2-1),(MS-PS2-2); 3.PS2.B (MS-PS2-3),(MS-PS2-5); 5.PS2.B (MS-PS2-4); HS.PS2.A (MS-PS2-1),(MS-PS2-2); HS.PS2.B (MS-PS2-3),(MS-PS2-4),(MS-PS2-5); HS.PS3.A (MS-PS2-5); HS.PS3.B (MS-PS2-2),(MS-PS2-5); HS.PS3.C (MS-PS2-5); HS.ESS1.B (MS-PS2-2),(MS-PS2-4)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

MS.Forces and Interactions

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

MS-PS2-1. Apply Newton’s Third Law to design a solution to a problem involving the motion of two colliding objects.* [Clarification Statement: Examples of practical problems could include the impact of collisions between two cars, between a car and stationary objects, and between a meteor and a space vehicle.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to vertical or horizontal interactions in one dimension.] Plan an investigation to provide evidence that the change in an object’s motion depends on the sum of the forces on the object and the mass of the object. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on balanced (Newton’s First Law) and unbalanced forces in a system, qualitative comparisons of forces, mass and changes in motion (Newton’s Second Law), frame of reference, and specification of units.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to forces and changes in motion in one-dimension in an inertial reference frame and to change in one variable at a time. Assessment does not include the use of trigonometry.] Ask questions about data to determine the factors that affect the strength of electric and magnetic forces. [Clarification Statement: Examples of devices that use electric and magnetic forces could include electromagnets, electric motors, or generators. Examples of data could include the effect of the number of turns of wire on the strength of an electromagnet, or the effect of increasing the number or strength of magnets on the speed of an electric motor.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment about questions that require quantitative answers is limited to proportional reasoning and algebraic thinking.] Construct and present arguments using evidence to support the claim that gravitational interactions are attractive and depend on the masses of interacting objects. [Clarification Statement: Examples of evidence for arguments could include data generated from simulations or digital tools; and charts displaying mass, strength of interaction, distance from the Sun, and orbital periods of objects within the solar system.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment does not include Newton’s Law of Gravitation or Kepler’s Laws.] Conduct an investigation and evaluate the experimental design to provide evidence that fields exist between objects exerting forces on each other even though the objects are not in contact. [Clarification Statement: Examples of this phenomenon could include the interactions of magnets, electrically-charged strips of tape, and electrically-charged pith balls. Examples of investigations could include first-hand experiences or simulations.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to electric and magnetic fields, and limited to qualitative evidence for the existence of fields.]
The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

## Science and Engineering Practices

### Asking Questions and Defining Problems

Asking questions and defining problems in grades 6–8 builds from grades K–5 experiences and progresses to specifying relationships between variables, and clarifying arguments and models.

### Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include investigations that use multiple variables and provide evidence to support explanations or design solutions.

### Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 6–8 builds on K–5 experiences and progresses to include constructing explanations and designing solutions supported by multiple sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.

### Engaging in Argument from Evidence

Engaging in argument from evidence in 6–8 builds from K–5 experiences and progresses to constructing a convincing argument that supports or refutes claims for either explanations or solutions about the natural and designed world.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

### Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence

• Science knowledge is based upon logical and conceptual connections between evidence and explanations. (MS-PS2-2),(MS-PS2-4)

## Crosscutting Concepts

### Stability and Change

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

### Connections to Engineering,Technology,

and Applications of Science

### Influence of Science, Engineering, and Technology on Society and the Natural World

• The uses of technologies and any limitations on their use are driven by individual or societal needs, desires, and values; by the findings of scientific research; and by differences in such factors as climate, natural resources, and economic conditions. (MS-PS2-1)

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

MS.PS3.A (MS-PS2-2); MS.PS3.B (MS-PS2-2); MS.PS3.C (MS-PS2-1); MS.ESS1.A (MS-PS2-4); MS.ESS1.B (MS-PS2-4); MS.ESS2.C (MS-PS2-2),(MS-PS2-4)

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

3.PS2.A (MS-PS2-1),(MS-PS2-2); 3.PS2.B (MS-PS2-3),(MS-PS2-5); 5.PS2.B (MS-PS2-4); HS.PS2.A (MS-PS2-1),(MS-PS2-2); HS.PS2.B (MS-PS2-3),(MS-PS2-4),(MS-PS2-5); HS.PS3.A (MS-PS2-5); HS.PS3.B (MS-PS2-2),(MS-PS2-5); HS.PS3.C (MS-PS2-5); HS.ESS1.B (MS-PS2-2),(MS-PS2-4)

Common Core State Standards Connections:

* The performance expectations marked with an asterisk integrate traditional science content with engineering through a Practice or Disciplinary Core Idea.

The section entitled “Disciplinary Core Ideas” is reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Integrated and reprinted with permission from the National Academy of Sciences.

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