Students who demonstrate understanding can:
HSPS21. 
[Clarification Statement: Examples of data could include tables or graphs of position or velocity as a function of time for objects subject to a net unbalanced force, such as a falling object, an object sliding down a ramp, or a moving object being pulled by a constant force.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to onedimensional motion and to macroscopic objects moving at nonrelativistic speeds.] 
HSPS22. 
[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the quantitative conservation of momentum in interactions and the qualitative meaning of this principle.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to systems of two macroscopic bodies moving in one dimension.] 
HSPS23. 
[Clarification Statement: Examples of evaluation and refinement could include determining the success of the device at protecting an object from damage and modifying the design to improve it. Examples of a device could include a football helmet or a parachute.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to qualitative evaluations and/or algebraic manipulations.] 
HSPS24. 
[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both quantitative and conceptual descriptions of gravitational and electric fields.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to systems with two objects.] 
HSPS25. 
[Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to designing and conducting investigations with provided materials and tools.] 
HSPS26. 
[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the attractive and repulsive forces that determine the functioning of the material. Examples could include why electrically conductive materials are often made of metal, flexible but durable materials are made up of long chained molecules, and pharmaceuticals are designed to interact with specific receptors.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to provided molecular structures of specific designed materials.] 

The performance expectations above were developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K12 Science Education: 
Science and Engineering Practices
Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical and empirical models.
Analyzing data in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to introducing more detailed statistical analysis, the comparison of data sets for consistency, and the use of models to generate and analyze data.
Mathematical and computational thinking at the 9–12 level builds on K–8 and progresses to using algebraic thinking and analysis, a range of linear and nonlinear functions including trigonometric functions, exponentials and logarithms, and computational tools for statistical analysis to analyze, represent, and model data. Simple computational simulations are created and used based on mathematical models of basic assumptions.
Constructing explanations and designing solutions in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to explanations and designs that are supported by multiple and independent studentgenerated sources of evidence consistent with scientific ideas, principles, and theories.
Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information in 9–12 builds on K–8 and progresses to evaluating the validity and reliability of the claims, methods, and designs.
                                   
Connections to Nature of Science
Science Models, Laws, Mechanisms, and Theories Explain Natural Phenomena
 Theories and laws provide explanations in science. (HSPS21),(HSPS24)
 Laws are statements or descriptions of the relationships among observable phenomena. (HSPS21),(HSPS24)

Disciplinary Core Ideas

Crosscutting Concepts

Connections to other DCIs in this gradelevel:
HS.PS3.A (HSPS24),(HSPS25); HS.PS3.C (HSPS21); HS.PS4.B (HSPS25); HS.ESS1.A (HSPS21),(HSPS22),(HSPS24); HS.ESS1.B (HSPS24); HS.ESS1.C (HSPS21),(HSPS22),(HSPS24);HS.ESS2.A (HSPS25); HS.ESS2.C (HSPS21),(HSPS24); HS.ESS3.A (HSPS24),(HSPS25) 
Articulation of DCIs across gradebands:
MS.PS1.A (HSPS26); MS.PS2.A (HSPS21),(HSPS22),(HSPS23); MS.PS2.B (HSPS24),(HSPS25),(HSPS26); MS.PS3.C (HSPS21),(HSPS22),(HSPS23); MS.ESS1.B (HSPS24),(HSPS25) 
Common Core State Standards Connections:
ELA/Literacy  
RST.1112.1 
Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts, attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. (HSPS21),(HSPS26) 
RST.1112.7 
Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g., quantitative data, video, multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. (HSPS21) 
WHST.1112.2 
Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. (HSPS26) 
WHST.1112.7 
Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a selfgenerated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. (HSPS23),(HSPS25) 
WHST.1112.8 
Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task, purpose, and audience; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. (HSPS25) 
WHST.1112.9 
Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. (HSPS21),(HSPS25) 
Mathematics  
MP.2 
Reason abstractly and quantitatively. (HSPS21),(HSPS22),(HSPS24) 
MP.4 
Model with mathematics. (HSPS21),(HSPS22),(HSPS24) 
HSN.Q.A.1 
Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multistep problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (HSPS21),(HSPS22),(HSPS24),(HSPS25),(HSPS26) 
HSN.Q.A.2 
Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling. (HSPS21),(HSPS22),(HSPS24),(HSPS25),(HSPS26) 
HSN.Q.A.3 
Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurement when reporting quantities. (HSPS21),(HSPS22),(HSPS24),(HSPS25),(HSPS26) 
HSA.SSE.A.1 
Interpret expressions that represent a quantity in terms of its context. (HSPS21),(HSPS24) 
HSA.SSE.B.3 
Choose and produce an equivalent form of an expression to reveal and explain properties of the quantity represented by the expression. (HSPS21),(HSPS24) 
HSA.CED.A.1 
Create equations and inequalities in one variable and use them to solve problems. (HSPS21),(HSPS22) 
HSA.CED.A.2 
Create equations in two or more variables to represent relationships between quantities; graph equations on coordinate axes with labels and scales. (HSPS21),(HSPS22) 
HSA.CED.A.4 
Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. (HSPS21),(HSPS22) 
HSFIF.C.7 
Graph functions expressed symbolically and show key features of the graph, by in hand in simple cases and using technology for more complicated cases. (HSPS21) 
HSSIS.A.1 
Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots). (HSPS21) 
