HS-PS3-4   Energy

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-PS3-4. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that the transfer of thermal energy when two components of different temperature are combined within a closed system results in a more uniform energy distribution among the components in the system (second law of thermodynamics). [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on analyzing data from student investigations and using mathematical thinking to describe the energy changes both quantitatively and conceptually. Examples of investigations could include mixing liquids at different initial temperatures or adding objects at different temperatures to water.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to investigations based on materials and tools provided to students.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

## Science and Engineering Practices

### Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical, and empirical models.

## Crosscutting Concepts

### Systems and System Models

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

Common Core State Standards Connections:

HS-PS3-4   Energy

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-PS3-4. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that the transfer of thermal energy when two components of different temperature are combined within a closed system results in a more uniform energy distribution among the components in the system (second law of thermodynamics). [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on analyzing data from student investigations and using mathematical thinking to describe the energy changes both quantitatively and conceptually. Examples of investigations could include mixing liquids at different initial temperatures or adding objects at different temperatures to water.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to investigations based on materials and tools provided to students.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

## Science and Engineering Practices

### Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical, and empirical models.

## Crosscutting Concepts

### Systems and System Models

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

Common Core State Standards Connections:

HS-PS3-4   Energy

Students who demonstrate understanding can:

HS-PS3-4. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that the transfer of thermal energy when two components of different temperature are combined within a closed system results in a more uniform energy distribution among the components in the system (second law of thermodynamics). [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on analyzing data from student investigations and using mathematical thinking to describe the energy changes both quantitatively and conceptually. Examples of investigations could include mixing liquids at different initial temperatures or adding objects at different temperatures to water.] [Assessment Boundary: Assessment is limited to investigations based on materials and tools provided to students.]
The performance expectation above was developed using the following elements from the NRC document A Framework for K-12 Science Education:

## Science and Engineering Practices

### Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Planning and carrying out investigations to answer questions or test solutions to problems in 9–12 builds on K–8 experiences and progresses to include investigations that provide evidence for and test conceptual, mathematical, physical, and empirical models.

## Crosscutting Concepts

### Systems and System Models

Connections to other DCIs in this grade-band:

Articulation of DCIs across grade-bands:

Common Core State Standards Connections:

* The performance expectations marked with an asterisk integrate traditional science content with engineering through a Practice or Disciplinary Core Idea.

The section entitled “Disciplinary Core Ideas” is reproduced verbatim from A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Cross-Cutting Concepts, and Core Ideas. Integrated and reprinted with permission from the National Academy of Sciences.

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## How to Read the Standards

The standards integrate three dimensions within each standard and have intentional connections across standards. More...